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  • Bibliography
| Last Updated: :21/07/2017

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Title :  Application of numerical modelling for morphological changes in a high-energy beach during the south-west monsoon
Subject :  Current Science
Volume No. : 98
Issue No. : 5
Author : Shamji, V R, Hameed T S S, Kurian N P, Thomas K V;
Printed Year : 2010
No of Pages  : 691-95
Description : 

 

Study of beach morphological changes during monsoon and development of capabilities towards its prediction is of vital importance in coastal zone management. A study of the beach erosion/accretion processes during south-west monsoon and its numerical modelling is attempted in this communication for a micro-tidal and high-energy beach. Comprehensive hydrodynamic and beach profile data measured in the field were used for the study. The beach morphological changes as a result of the high intensity monsoon waves are found to be characterized by erosion of beach coupled with deposition in the offshore leading to formation and migration offshore longshore bar. The model LITPROF of the LITPACK software of DHI is found to simulate well the beach morphological changes by adjustment of the calibration parameters.

 

 


Title :  Convective thundercloud development over the Western Ghats mountain slope in Kerala
Subject : Current Science
Volume No. : 104
Issue No. : 11
Author : Vishnu R, Anil Kumar V, Varikoden Hamza, Sarath Krishnan K, Sreekanth T. S., Subi Symon V. N, Murali Das S, Mohan Kumar G; NCESS, Thiruvananthapuram and IIT, Pune
Printed Year : 2013
No of Pages  : 
Description : 

Abstract: Investigations were carried out on the data from Braemore mountain observatory (Lat.: 8°45’N, Long.: 77°5’E) using a single lens Ceilomter (LIDAR), an Electric Field Mill and a portable Automatic Weather Station throughout the year 2010. The simultaneous data collected from the above instruments indicate the existence of strong updrafts followed by the formation of thunderclouds, a characteristic of the mountain slopes, during the thunderstorm months. Changes in atmosphere related to condensation and formation of water droplets during updraft events on the mountain slope could be detected from the Ceilometer scattering data. Results of the study point to the cause of relatively more thunderstorm activity in that zone. This seems to be due to excessive updraft which is strongly related to the lightning activity in the region.


Title :  Elucidation of Contaminant-Induced Toxic Responses in the Biota of Lake Vembanad, Kerala, India
Subject : This study investigates the spatial distribution of various organochlorine insecticides
Volume No. : 
Issue No. : 10.1080/10807039.2014.960722
Author : P. A. Shibini Mol, Ranjitha Raveendran & C. H. Sujatha, Department of Chemical Oceanography, School of Marine SciencesCochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, India
Printed Year : 2014
No of Pages  : 1576-1592
Description : 

Abstract: This study investigates the spatial distribution of various organochlorine insecticides (OCIs) and heavy metals in both sediment and a bivalve, Villorita cyprinoides var. Cochinensis, collected from three pristine areas of Lake Vembanad. The detected concentrations of OCIs in the bivalve and sediment are in the order DDT > Heptachlor > BHC and BHC > DDD > heptachlor, respectively. However the DDT concentration (28.5 ng/g) in the bivalve at Chambakkara exceeded the limit suggested by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NWQAP) and indicated an anthropogenic input source for the parent DDT. The maximum potential contamination indices for Zn and Ni in the bivalve were 267.8 mg/kg and 22.3 mg/kg, respectively. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) values of sediment indicated that Cd showed high pollution status and the Biota Sediment Accumulation Factor value of heavy metals suggested that Zn, Cu, and Cd were bio-accumulated in the bivalve's tissue. The concentrations of Zn and Cd were above the threshold levels and regarded as harmful according to the international standard for metals in mollusc compiled by the Food and Agriculture Organization. Therefore, they create great health risk for mussel consumers.


Title :  Extent of Water Crisis and Women in Kerala
Subject : Asia Pacific Journal of Research
Volume No. : 1
Issue No. : 13
Author : Dr.Haseena V.A, Assistant professor, Post Graduate Department of Economics, M.E.S Asmabi College, P.Vemaballur, Kodungallur, Kerala
Printed Year : 2014
No of Pages  : 
Description : 

Abstract: Kerala is a state with a lot of outstanding achievements especially in its social development. The development model in Kerala has been a topic hot debate among the academician and in the political front. The same is the case of water resources in the state. Kerala has been considered as a water surplus state with 44 rivers, back waters and a lot of lakes. But at the same time it has become the routine in the state that women and children queuing with multi colour buckets and ponds in front of water taps and water supply tankers either public or private and the govt. of Kerala declared 7 out of 14 districts in the state as drought prone in 2012.The state is now facing stringent crisis in water resources especially in drinking water. The answer to why a state with a lot of rivers and lakes is converted to the drought prone area given by the wreck less sand mining and quarrying mushrooming in the state for last two decades. The manmade disaster has grown to an ironic situation that the districts affected by drought last year are those known for their rivers and lakes. Now when we are coming to the victims of the afore mentioned crisis, we find women the single most affected or prey to bonded victimisation as a result of the imposed responsibilities on the women across culture and continents. In the case of household management, it has been imposed from above as the sole burden of the women in Kerala also. Women discharge a lot of unpaid and unattended duties in her effort to make the household management the best. It becomes a herculean task when the resources mobilisation also becomes the responsibility of women. When there is no water in the villages, no crops grown, no cattle can be feed. The women folk who are primarily engages with agriculture and relied activities as their earning, is now excluded from economic activities and they are not able to earn. And when the water becomes paid and commercialised the water become a precious commodity the rural woman dream. These force them to confine in their home as dependent on their men or male members who are migrated to the urban areas. Ramon Magsaysay award winner Rajendra Singh says, to solve the country’s water problem, we have to first recharge the earth’s own resource, Women play an important part here. Kerala has huge potential of women participation in managing the water resources of the state. The Kudumbashree Programme of the state the ever green model for women participation and women empowerment can contribute highly in this regard. Key words: Water crisis, water.


Title :  Recent microtremors near the Idukki Reservoir, Kerala, South India
Subject : Current Science
Volume No. : 102
Issue No. : 10
Author :  Kusala Rajendran, C. P. Rajendran, Sreekumari Kesavan and Naveen R, CSS
Printed Year : 2012
No of Pages  : 1446-1451
Description : 

 

Abstract: The continuing low-level seismicity in the vicinity of the Idukki Reservoir, Kerala, is interesting from the perspective of hydrologically triggered earthquakes. While the frequency of triggered earthquakes in the vicinity of a reservoir usually reduces with time and the largest earthquake usually occurs within a few years on the initial filling, the triggered seismicity in the proximity of the Idukki Reservoir seems to be showing a second, delayed peak, as the 1977 (M 3.5) tremor was followed by a slightly larger event in 2011, 24 years after the first burst of activity. Quite unprecedented in the context of reservoir-triggered sequences, we consider this delayed sequence as the hydrologic response of a critically stressed hypocentral region, to monsoonal recharging. The sustained activity several decades after the impoundment and the temporal relation with the monsoon suggest that at least some parts of the reservoir region continue to retain the potential for low-level seismic activity in response to hydrologic cycles.


Title : Abnormal Modulation of Atmospheric Parameters during the Tsunami of 2004 Environmental Projects
Subject : Current Science
Volume No. : 
Issue No. : 
Author : R. Vishnu, Hamza Varikoden, V. Anil Kumar, S. Murali Das, G. Mohan Kumar, V.N. Subi Symon; Centre for Earth Science Studies,Thiruvananthapuram
Printed Year : 2012
No of Pages  : 102(11)
Description : 

Abstract: This paper discusses the abnormal changes in weather elements observed at a tropical mountain location and a coastal station in India. Abnormal changes were noticed in the atmospheric parameters at a time close to the occurrence of tsunami on the Indian coasts due to high magnitude earthquakes in the Sumatra region on 26 December 2004. Close to the time of this earthquake occurrence, uncharacteristic and large magnitude changes in weather elements were recorded at Braemore (8°45N, 77°05E, 360 m amsl), a mountain field station at Western Ghats. Abnormal changes were also recorded at Minambakkam (13°N, 80°18E, 16 m SLP), close to eastern coastal belts. In the Braemore field station, simultaneous changes were observed in the atmospheric parameters; decrease in pressure by 0.6 hPa, increase in relative humidity by 30% and a prominent reduction in air temperature by more than 3°C on the day of tsunami. Also, unusually the relative humidity did not reach 100% on the previous night. However, in the Minambakkam station, the relative humidity increased by 10% associated with a sharp decrease in temperature by about 2.5°C. The changes in both the stations occurred almost at the same time and duration. Therefore, it may be concluded that these changes are associated with the high magnitude earthquake and subsequent tsunami.


Title : An Amphibian Host Defense Peptide is Virucidal for Human H1 Hemagglutinin-Bearing Influenza Viruses
Subject : 
Volume No. : 46
Issue No. : 4
Author : David J. Holthausen, Song Hee Lee, Vineeth TV Kumar, Nicole M. Bouvier, Florian Krammer, Ali H. Ellebedy, Jens Wrammert, Anice C. Lowen, Sanil George, Madhavan Radhakrishna Pillai, Joshy Jacob, Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Center, Em
Printed Year : 2017
No of Pages  : 587-595
Description : 

 

               Although vaccines confer protection against influenza A viruses, antiviral treatment becomes the first line of defense during pandemics because there is insufficient time to produce vaccines. Current antiviral drugs are susceptible to drug resistance, and developing new antiviral is essential. We studied host defense peptides from the skin of the South Indian frog and demonstrated that one of these, which we named “urumin,” is virucidal for H1 hemagglutinin-bearing human influenza A viruses. This peptide specifically targeted the conserved stalk region of H1 hemagglutinin and was effective against drug-resistant H1 influenza viruses. Using electron microscopy, we showed that this peptide physically destroyed influenza visions. It also protected naive mice from lethal influenza infection. Urumin represents a unique class of anti-influenza virucide that specifically targets the hemagglutinin stalk region, similar to targeting of antibodies induced by universal influenza vaccines. Urumin therefore has the potential to contribute to first-line anti-viral treatments during influenza outbreaks.

 


Title : Assessment of Water Quality Parameters in Mangrove Ecosystems Along
Subject : Kerala Coast: A Statistical Approach
Volume No. : 6
Issue No. : 4
Author : Manju M. N, Resmi P, Gireesh Kumar T.R, Ratheesh Kumar C.S, Rahul R, Joseph M. M and Chandramohanakumar N
Printed Year : 2012
No of Pages  : 893-902
Description : 

Authors and Affiliation: Manju M. N, Resmi P,  Gireesh Kumar T.R, Ratheesh Kumar C.S, Rahul R,  Joseph M. M and Chandramohanakumar N, Department of Chemical Oceanography, School of Marine Sciences, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala, India

Abstract: Water samples were collected from five selected mangrove ecosystems along Kerala coast, North of Cochin, on seasonal basis and analysed for various hydrographic parameters. To explain spatiotemporal variations and the processes controlling their distribution, ANOVA (two factor without replication), correlation and principal component analysis were carried out. Concentration of total nitrogen varied from 10.26 to 188.38 μM and total phosphorous from 1.53 to 22.88 μM, with comparatively higher concentration in monsoon season which could be attributed by land run off. Chlorophyll pigments recorded significant seasonal variation ranging from ND to 40.86 μg/L (chlorophyll a), ND to 6.00 μg/L (Chlorophyll b) and ND to 13.80 μg/L (Chlorophyll c). Both monsoon and post monsoon seasons recorded higher concentration of pheophytin compared to Chlorophyll a and the maximum concentration of chlorophyll was observed during pre monsoon. Station 2 (Pappinissery) exhibited elevated concentration of nutrients (especially NH4 +) and lower DO content which pointed towards the reducing environment by anthropogenic stress. Factor analysis revealed six components which explained 92.77% of the total variance. It also described the processes like diagenesis, sediment remineralisation, anthropogenic activities, tidal and river influx which make the ecosystem highly complex.


Title : Biodegradation of Endosulfan by Pseudomonas fluorescens
Subject : Biodegradation of Endosulfan by Pseudomonas fluorescens
Volume No. : 
Issue No. : 
Author : K. Jesitha, K. M. Nimisha C. M. Manjusha and P. S. Harikumar, CWRDM, Kozhikkode
Printed Year : 
No of Pages  : 225–240
Description : 

Journal : Environ. Process. 2, 225–240.Springer International Publishing  Switzerland.

Abstract: The endosulfan-degrading bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens was isolated, and degradation of endosulfan by freely suspended and calcium-alginate entrapped bacterial cells were investigated in batch as well as in packed bed column studies. Freely suspended Pseudomonas fluorescens cells with biomass maximum OD/OD0 value of 1.68 at 610 nm could degrade endosulfan with an initial concentration of 350.24 ± 0.83 μg/L efficiently within 12 days, thus utilising endosulfan as the sole carbon and energy source. Degradation of endosulfan occurred concomitantly with bacterial growth. The bacteria immobilised in Ca-alginate beads in batch shake flask system were tested for their ability to degrade endosulfan at different concentrations (350.24 ± 0.83, 450.39 ± 1.95 and 550.85 ± 1.84 μg/L). A total of 125 mL of Broth minimal medium of pH 7 was inoculated with 5 g of wet Ca-alginate beads (derived from a 3-mL cell suspension of 0.72 OD at 610 nm) for the study. Almost similar trends of degradation efficiencies were shown by the immobilised cells toward different concentrations of endosulfan. The complete removal of alpha and beta-isomers of endosulfan at different initial endosulfan concentrations was observed between 9 and 11 days of the experiment. Additionally, the degradation rate in batch reactors with Ca-alginate-immobilised cells also derived from a 3-mL cell suspension of 0.72 OD at 610 nm was tested and found to be marginally higher than that of free cells. Ca-alginate immobilised cells in packed bed reactors operated in a semi-continuous mode could degrade toxic alpha and beta-isomers of endosulfan (350.38 ± 1.18 μg/L) within 6 days. Thus, the method proved effective for biodegradation of endosulfan. The metabolites formed indicated that the degradation of the pesticide follows a hydrolytic pathway.


Title : Biodegradation of water hyacinth, sugarcane bagasse and rice husk through vermicomposting
Subject : Environmental Science
Volume No. : 2
Issue No. : 6
Author : Vivek K. Saini, R.C. Sihag, R.C. Sharma, S.K. Gahlawat, R.K. Gupta
Printed Year : 2008
No of Pages  : 8
Description : 

 

Water hyacinth, sugarcane bagasse and rice husk are major bio-organic wastes causing severe environmental problems. For their biodegradation, Eisenia fetida was used as a vermicomposting worm in outdoor open field conditions. The above wastes were mixed separately with fresh cow dung in the ratio 1 : 5 (by weight). The mixtures were vermicomposted for 90 days in pits of size 2 × 0.5 × 0.6 m (l × b × d). The population and biomass of earthworms, and C:N ratios in the resultant vermicomposts were studied at the end of experiment.

 


Title : Biosorption of Cadmium by Live and Immobilized Cells of Spirulina Platensis
Subject : Environmental Science
Volume No. : 2
Issue No. : 3
Author : Murugesan, A.G * Maheswari, S. and Bagirath, G
Printed Year : 2008
No of Pages  : 
Description : 

 

Spirulina platensis, a cyanobacterium of economic important was studied for the tolerance to cadmium. The bioassay studies showed the EC50 value to be 1.53 mg/g. The cyanobacterium was very sensitive to low metal concentration and the productivity was also reduced. The chlorophyll pigments reduced with decreasing the algal biomass. The algal survival rate showed a marked reduction in their survival rate from 98% in the control medium to >50% at 1.6 mg/L cadmium and no growth in the culture exposed to cadmium concentration of 1.9 mg/L. The Biosorption studies showed that the algae had a great potential for adsorbing the heavy metal on to the cell. A maximum uptake of 44.56 mg/g was obtained in living cells of Spirulina platensis suggesting the possibility of the algae to be a good biosorbent. Culturing the algae in low metal concentrations can be utilized as potential tertiary treatment for metal containing effluent. The immobilized cell of Spirulina platensis was able to be more effective in absorbing the metal 47.89 mg/g to the cell. The results of the study indicate the potentiality of the algae to be a possible agent for removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions.

 


Title : Book on Sand Mining-Environmental Impacts and Selected Case Studies
Subject : Sand Mining
Volume No. : 
Issue No. : 
Author : Padmalal D and Maya K, NCESS, Akkulam
Printed Year : 
No of Pages  : 
Description : 

This book addresses most of the environmental impacts of sand mining from small rivers. The problems and solutions addressed in this book are applicable to all rivers that drain through densely populated tropical coasts undergoing rapid economic growth. Many rivers in the world are drastically being altered to levels often beyond their natural resilience capability. Among the different types of human interventions, mining of sand and gravel is the most disastrous one, as the activity threatens the very existence of river ecosystem. A better understanding of sand budget is necessary if the problems of river and coastal environments are to be solved.


Title : Challenges in the management of epilepsy in resource-poor countries.
Subject : Environmental Science
Volume No. : 
Issue No. : 
Author : Radhakrishnan K, R. Madhavan Nayar
Printed Year : 2009
No of Pages  : 
Description : 

 

Of the 50 million people with epilepsy worldwide, around 80% reside in resource-poor countries, which are ill-equipped to tackle the enormous medical, social and economic challenges posed by epilepsy. The capability to identify people with epilepsy and provide cost-effective care is compromised by widespread poverty, illiteracy, inefficient and unevenly distributed health-care systems, and social stigma and misconceptions surrounding the disease. Several studies have reported that a large proportion of patients with epilepsy in resource-poor countries never receive appropriate treatment for their condition, and many, although diagnosed and initiated on treatment, soon discontinue treatment. The high cost of treatment, a lack of availability of antiepileptic drugs, and superstitious and cultural beliefs contribute to a large epilepsy treatment gap. A substantial proportion of the current burden of epilepsy in resource-poor countries could be minimized by educating the public about positive features of life with epilepsy, informing primary and secondary physicians about current trends in the management of epilepsies, scaling up routine availability of low-cost antiepileptic drugs, and developing cost-effective epilepsy surgery programs. A comprehensive epilepsy care model should consider the marked heterogeneity of the disorder and its variable effects on the patient, family and community.

 


Title : Changes to a Drive-in Beach in Southwest India due to Severe Erosion and Subsequent Reformation
Subject : 
Volume No. : 
Issue No. : 
Author : Abdulla P K, Pravya Jayaraj C V, Priyalakshmi M T, Chandran K and James E J, CWRDM Kozhikkode
Printed Year : 2015
No of Pages  :  357-364
Description : 

Journal: Elsevier Aquatic Procedia, 4 (2015), DOI 10.1016/j.aqpro2015.02.048, pp 357-364

Abstract: Driving in beach, a fascinating recreational activity is in vogue in a few special beaches in the world. Management plans are formulated for these beaches to overcome the adverse impact of beach driving on the overall coastal ecosystem and to ensure the safety of both the passengers and others who frequent the beach. The management plans for drive-in beaches often deal with the vehicle conditions such as tyre pressure, number of driving wheels and their dimensions and also the environmental conditions of the beach such as wave conditions, storms and stages of tide. However, such a management plan has not been formulated for the Muzhappilangad drive-in beach of Kerala on the southwest coast of India. Generally, this beach experiences only normal changes during the monsoon. However, during the 2013, a portion of the beach underwent severe recession which lead to the ban of vehicles to the eroded part of the beach. A portion of subsequently reformed beach became unfit for vehicle driving. Erosion brought changes to the wave breaking pattern. Plunging waves are observed at some stretches of the eroded beach; spilling breakers continued on either sides of this portion. After reformation, spilling breakers are observed in the entire length of the beach. Samples extracted from three depths by core cutter prior to erosion and after reformation revealed that the mean diameter and standard deviation of the particle changed significantly at the severely eroded portion where plunging breakers are experienced whereas; at other portion of the reformed beach, the changes in the particle size is very nominal.


Title : Comparative Study on Start – Up Performance of HUASB and AF Reactors Treating Poultry Slaughterhouse Wastewater
Subject : Environmental Science
Volume No. : 2
Issue No. : 4
Author : : Rajakumar, R.* and Meenambal, T
Printed Year : 2008
No of Pages  : 
Description : 

 

A study was performed in Hybrid Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (HUASB) and Anaerobic Filter (AF) reactors to compare the start-up time and optimum HRT required for the treatment of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater under similar loading conditions. Initially, the reactors were started at an OLR of 0.77 Kg COD/m3.d and HRT of 36 h. Loading rates were increased by reducing HRT 24, 16, 12, 10 and 8h which corresponds the OLR of 1.15, 1.74, 2.27, 2.74, 3.43 Kg COD/ m3.d. HUASB reactor showed TCOD and SCOD removal efficiencies of 80% and 86%, respectively at an optimum HRT of 10 h whereas AF reactor showed 70% (TCOD) and 79% (SCOD) at optimum HRT of 12 h. Reducing HRT beyond 10h in HUASB reactor shown sludge wash out and lower COD removal efficiencies of less than 80% and beyond 12 h in AF marked decreased efficiencies as low as 66%. HUASB and AF reactors took 120, 147 respectively, for complete start-up. The granules of 2-2.5  mm sizes were observed in HUASB and less than 1 mm were observed in AF with settling velocities ranging between 0.5-0.83 m/min and 0.5-0.65m/min, respectively. From Residence Time Distribution studies, dispersion numbers (<0.2) showed both the reactors attained plug flow regime. The present study revealed that the HUASB reactor has very good removal efficiency and less start-up time compared to that of AF reactor for the treatment of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater.

 


Title : Depositional behaviour of C-org, N, P and K in the surface sediments of two shallow water bodies in a tropical coast, India
Subject : Environ Monit Assess
Volume No. : 185
Issue No. : 9
Author : Baijulal B, Sobha V, Jyothi SJ, Padmalal D, Emmanuel J
Printed Year : 2013
No of Pages  : 7181-93
Description : 

 

The present paper deals with the distribution of sediment and sediment-bound nutrients in two important coastal lagoons of southern Kerala such as the Ashtamudi Estuarine Lagoon in the Kollam district and the Kadinamkulam Lagoon in the Thiruvananthapuram district. Among the two lagoons, the former is coast perpendicular, and the latter is coast parallel. An analysis of the textural characteristics reveals that, in both lagoons, the estuarine mouth and areas close to it are dominated by sand and sand-rich sediment species, indicating a high-energy depositional regime prevailing the region. On the other hand, the silt and clay dominant arms are almost sheltered and enjoy a low-energy depositional environment. The nutrient and organic carbon contents in the sheltered areas are significantly higher than the most dynamic high-energy estuarine mouth regions. This peculiar behaviour of these coastal water bodies has to be given adequate importance while laying down strategies for the conservation and management of these fragile aquatic systems in the south-western coast of India in particular and tropical coasts of the world in general.


Title : DIN, DIP, DIC AND SO4 Fluxes from the Neyyar River (Kerala) into the Receiving Coastal Waters
Subject : Industrial Engineering and Management Science
Volume No. : 2
Issue No. : special issue
Author : B. Baburaj, D. Padmalal, S.I. Remya, K. Maya and I. Lekshmi; Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram
Printed Year : 
No of Pages  : 1-7
Description : 

Abstract: Rivers are the major contributors of dissolved materials into the ocean realms. Among the dissolved components, the inorganic forms of nutrients received considerable significance in recent years, as they have a strong bearing on the productivity of the aquatic environments. Although many studies on dissolved nutrient transport are available for the major rivers, much attention has not been made in the small rivers having catchment area <10000 km2. The situation is rather worse in the case of the small rivers in the south western coast of India, especially along the Kerala coast. Therefore, an attempt has been made in this study to address the fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), nitrogen (DIN), phosphorous (DIP) and SO4 from one of the important small, mountainous rivers of Southern Kerala - the Neyyar river. On an average the main channel of the Neyyar river records an amount of 1.92 mg/l of DIC, 1065 μg/l of DIN, 158 μg/l of DIP and 6.54 mg/l SO4. The DIC, DIN, DIP and SO4 in the estuarine environment are 2.03 mg/l, 175 μg/l, 168 μg/l and 67.24 mg/1, respectively. The study reveals that distribution of these geochemical signals in the Neyyar river is function of the intensity of weathering, sedimentary and biologic processes operating in this fluvial system. Flux computation carried out as a part of this study reveals that the Neyyar discharges an amount 11000 kg of DIC, 2500 kg of DIN, 1000 kg of DIP and 500 kg of dissolved SO4 into the receiving coastal waters during summer season.

 


Title : Distribution of potentially pathogenic enteric bacteria in coastal sea waters along the Southern Kerala Coast, India
Subject : Environ Biol.
Volume No. : 33
Issue No. : 1
Author : Sudhanandh VS, Udayakumar P, Faisal AK, Potty VP, Ouseph PP, Prasanthan V, and Babu KN, Microbiology Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies,Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 031, India
Printed Year : 2012
No of Pages  : 
Description : 

This study evaluated the relationship between the traditional indicators of faecal pollution, total coliforms (TC), faecal coliforms (FC) and Faecalstreptococci (FS), and the presence of few potentially pathogenic enteric bacteria, Vibrio cholerae (VC), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP), Shigella spp. (SH) and Salmonella spp. (SL) in coastal sea water. The distributional statuses of these bacteria were also studied along the Southern Kerala coast. Cluster analyses were done to identify similar groups of indicator as well as enteric pathogenic bacteria. Kochi was found to be highly polluted with enteric pathogens and indicator bacteria (TC of 4700, VC of 820, FC of 920 and FS of 410 CFU ml(-1)). Percentage incidence of VC (97.42%) was comparatively higher than the traditional indicator bacteria (TC 95.04%, FC of 63.64% and FS of 47.64%). VC found to be rather stable and showed significant relationship with all the traditional indicator bacteria (R2 > 0.370), suggests that both quantitatively and qualitatively the abundance of Vibrio cholerae can determine faecal pollution, could be used as a faecal pollution indicator bacterium, especially in the marine environment where traditional indicator bacteria failed to survive. It would be advisable to always perform the detection of SH and VP beside the traditional indicators as no significant relationship (R2< or =0.076, p>0.05) exists among them. 


Title : Does substrate quality affect earthworm growth and reproduction patterns in vermicomposting systems? A study using three popular composting earthworms
Subject : Environmental Science
Volume No. : 2
Issue No. : 6
Author : Surindra Suthar, Setha Ram
Printed Year : 2008
No of Pages  : 16
Description : 

 

Efforts were made to evaluate the impact of substrate materials (crop residues + sheep manure, cowshed manure, and kitchen waste + leaf litter) on growth and reproduction performance of composting earthworms: Eudrilus eugeniae, Perionyx excavatus and Perionyx sansibaricus, under laboratory conditions. Results indicated that earthworm biomass and cocoon production rate was directly related to the type of earthworm species as well as nature of worm feedstuff. Although cocoon hatchling success did not show any relation with type of culture material, but hatchlings numbers cocoon−1 was directly related with quality of substrate. This study suggests that earthworm production can be managed by using feedstuff having higher nitrogen contents with low C:N ratios.

 


Title : Economic Valuation of Mangrove Ecosystems of Kerala, India
Subject : Journal of Environmental Professionals Sri Lanka
Volume No. : 4
Issue No. : 1
Author : M. Hema and P. Indira Devi, Centre of Excellence in Environmental Economics,Dept. of Agricultural Economics, College of Horticulture,Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur
Printed Year : 2005
No of Pages  : 16
Description : 

Abstract: Mangroves are invaluable treasure of our biodiversity with immense ecological and economic significance. The study was conducted in the mangrove areas of Ernakulam and Kannur districts of Kerala. These two districts accounted for nearly 65 per cent of the mangroves of the state. The study was based on primary and secondary data. The primary data was gathered from 480 respondents belonging to four identified stakeholder groups (residents, fishermen, paddy farmers and general public), selected through simple random sampling method. Data was collected through personal interview using structured pretested interview schedule along with direct observation. Four stakeholder groups of the mangrove ecosystem in the study area were residents living close to mangroves, fishermen, paddy farmers and general public. The economic valuation of ecological benefits of mangroves was attempted employing the Contingent Valuation Method. The respondents expressed their willingness to contribute towards conservation both in cash and kind (cash payment and manual participation as labor and as volunteer in awareness programs) and in combination. The average WTP expressed by the respondents was `2308/annum the range being `50-28,870. The TEV of the mangrove ecosystem of the state was thus `117,947 million, which was 0.14 per cent of the GSDP (2011-12).

 


Title : Economically Important Seaweeds of Kerala coast, India – A Review
Subject : Seaweeds, Diversity, Economic, Kerala,
Volume No. : 
Issue No. : 
Author : S. K.Yadav, M. Palanisamy* and G. V. S. Murthy Botanical Survey of India, Southern Regional Centre, TNAU Campus, Coimbatore – 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.
Printed Year : 2015
No of Pages  : 8
Description : 

 

List of the economically important seaweeds of Kerala Coast India


Title : Endemic Trees of Western Ghats-A check list from Wayanad district, Kerala, India
Subject : Environmental Sciences
Volume No. : 3
Issue No. : 2
Author : Volga V. R, M S Swaminathan Research Foundation; M. K. Ratheesh Narayanan, Dept. Of Botany, Payyannur College and N. Anil Kumar, M S Swaminathan Research Foundation
Printed Year : 2013
No of Pages  : 
Description : 

Abstract: A study was conducted to find out the diversity of endemic tree species of southern Western Ghats in Wayanad District of Kerala, India. For this several field trips were conducted in all area of Wayanad and collected materials for identification. A total number of 136 species comes under 38 family were recorded. Out of these family Lauraceae shows more number of plants with 17 species. Details 

 


Title : Energy efficiency management in India: a supply side perspective
Subject : Environmental Science
Volume No. : 7
Issue No. : 1
Author : Neena Sinha, N.V. Kumar
Printed Year : 2009
No of Pages  : 14
Description : 

 

The rapid pace of India's industrial development has altered the demand-supply situation for power generation and also set the process of opening up of markets by state regulators. In the backdrop of the expected growth rate of 9% envisaged for the Indian economy, power sector requires a capacity addition of 78,000 MW in the 11th Plan with the objective of 'power for all by 2012'. During fiscal year 2007, India's total energy shortage was 9.9% of its total requirements, and peak shortage was 16.6% of peak demand requirements, indicating the need for effective energy management. Most of the studies related to energy efficiency focus on demand side management (DSM), however, in this paper we propose that an integrated approach incorporating economic reforms, FDI, operational-efficiency improvement of existing power plants, introduction of new energy-efficient technologies and reduction of losses in T&D as practiced in India can be emulated by developing countries.

 


Title : Enhancement of hydrogen production from Kitchen Waste using heat treated anaerobic biogas plant slurry with pH control
Subject : Journal
Volume No. : 8
Issue No. : 1
Author : S. Jayalakshmi, V. Sukumaran, Kurian Joseph
Printed Year : 2009
No of Pages  : 12
Description : 

Hydrogen is found to be a clean energy source; biohydrogen has been researched in recent years. Anaerobic Digestion of Kitchen Waste (KW) for hydrogen production was performed in lab scale reactors, using heat-treated anaerobically digested biogas plant slurry. The biogas plant slurry was given heat treatment at varying temperatures ranging from 70 to 100 ° C for 15 min. Enhancement of hydrogen production using heat-treated anaerobic biogas plant slurry with pH control was also studied. To study the effect of pH in hydrogen production, the reactors were operated at varying pH ranging from 4.0 to 6.0. The reactor operated with 100 ° C Heat-Treated Inoculum (HTM) was efficient in hydrogen production from KW. The rate of hydrogen production was 176.2 mL kg−1 TS h−1. Methane was not reported in all the operated reactors except that the reactor operated with 70 ° C HTM. A significant difference was found in the production of hydrogen at different pH conditions and the pH 6 at mesophilic condition proved to be effective in enhancing the production of hydrogen. The rate of hydrogen production in the laboratory scale reactor operated with pH 6.0 was 211.20 ml kg−1 TS h−1. The hydrogen concentration was found to be 55-60% and the remaining was CO2. Normal butyrate was the main acid product, and the percentages of butyrate, acetate and propionate at tested conditions were 45-50, 20-25 and 20-25%, respectively.


Title : ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAMME ON WATER QUALITY-2016
Subject : ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAMME ON WATER QUALITY-2016
Volume No. : 
Issue No. : 
Author : Dr. P.S. Harikumar,Dr. Kamalakshan Kokkal
Printed Year : 2016
No of Pages  : 
Description : 

 1.0 Executive Summary

 

Implemented by: Centre for Water Resources Development and Management, Kozhikode

Coordinated by: Kerala State Council for Science Technology and Environment (KSCSTE)

 

The water quality information systems are being developed in advanced countries to manage the water quality from a point or nonpoint source of pollution. Centre for Water Resources Development and Management, Kozhikode, with the support of Kerala State Council for Science Technology and Environment (KSCSTE) is carrying out a project on “Environmental Monitoring Programme on Water Quality” which aims to create database on water quality and to use the derived information for practical application in the management of water resources and their effective utilization. The water quality monitoring is being done on a River basin scale. Samples are being collected for water quality analysis both from surface and groundwater sources. Groundwater sampling stations were fixed after conducting a sanitary survey in the panchayats/municipalities/corporations.

           In the first phase of the project, three river basins viz. Kabbini, Periyar and Neyyar were monitored and the technical report was brought out in 2009. In the second phase of the study, the water quality status of Karamana, Meenachil and Kadalundy river basins were reported. It is extended with Pamba, Chalakkudy Bharatpuzha, Ancharakandy-Thalassery –Mahi river basins in 2010. The water quality status of Chaliyar, Kallai, Achencoil and Kuttiyadi River basins was discussed in fourth phase of the technical report. The fifth part of the report comprised details on the water quality status of Valapattanam, Kallada, Keecheri-Puzhakkal and Chandragiri River basins. The sixth part of the report contained details on the water quality status of Kuppam, Karuvannur, Manimala, Kavvayi, Nileswar and Ramapuram River basins. The seventh part contained details on the water quality status of Kariangode, Vamanapuram, Muvattupuzha and Korapuzha river basins. The monitoring network had been expanded to the river basins such as Ithikkara, Palikkal, Uppala, Manjeswar, Ayiroor and Mamom river basins. The eighth part of the book contains the water quality status of these River basins. The available secondary data on water quality is being used along with the primary data generated through systematic water quality monitoring methods adopted in the present work.

The project also focuses on developing suitable water quality and biological indices for different water domains which could be utilized to identify the problem affected areas and to suggest necessary management action plans.

Biological indicators exhibit the degree of imbalance that has been caused while chemical methods demonstrate the concentration of pollutants responsible. Since biota can integrate the environmental effects of water chemistry, aquatic communities like phytoplankton reflects the average ecological condition and therefore may be used as indicators of water quality. In the above context, the biological monitoring was invariably included as a part of the project on Environmental Monitoring Programme on Water Quality.

The salient results of water quality status of the river basins such as Ithikkara, Palikkal, Uppala, Ayiroor, Manjeswar and Mamom River Basins are discussed in the following sections:

1.1 ITHIKKARA RIVER BASIN

1.1.1 Salient findings of the study

1.1.1.1 Surface water

*      The hydrogen ion concentration of the water was found to be slightly acidic during the summer months which may be due to the fact that there were decaying organic matter bringing acidic conditions of water. All the other sampling sites showed pH range within the BIS limit throughout the season.

*      Electrical conductivity values were obtained between 81.00 and 743.00 ms/cm (pre monsoon), 59.00 and 7590 mg/l (monsoon) and 102.00 and 3960.00 ms/cm (post monsoon) respectively. The highest EC value was reported at Ithikkara Bridge during monsoon season and Kulathupuzha during post monsoon season.

*      There was a decreasing trend for alkalinity from monsoon to post monsoon season.

*      The maximum value for nitrate was obtained at Kummaloor Bridge, which is a station with rich biodiversity.

*      The chloride content of studied water samples was within permissible limit prescribed by BIS except for the station near Ithikkara Bridge during pre monsoon (311.83 mg/l) and post monsoon seasons (1405.11 mg/l) respectively.

*      A maximum value of 1600mg/l sodium was observed at Ithikkara Bridge during monsoon season.

*      The BOD level in Ithikkara River fluctuated between 0.13 and 10.06 mg/l throughout the period of sampling. Very high BOD (10.06 mg/l) was noticed at IK 3 (Njavaroor kadavu).

*      Values of all heavy metals were found to be within the BIS limit. Iron, lead, Nickel and Cadmium were not detected during the period of study.

          The results of the analysis showed that the pestisides level in the water samples were below detection limit.  

 

*      Maximum microbial contamination was reported in pre monsoon season.

*      According to CCME water quality index, 88% water sample had marginal water quality       and 12% water samples showed poor quality.

*      The irrigation water quality parameters like SAR, SSP and KR indicate that majority of the samples from Ithikkara River are suitable for irrigation purposes.

*      Classification of the river based on best designated use prescribed by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) showed that majority of the surface water samples from Ithikkara can be used as drinking water sources only after conventional treatment and disinfection.

*      Cluster analysis showed that out of the identified two clusters, one of which is formed by points with low contamination levels and the other where the anthropogenic  interference and saline intrusion is noticeable.

1.1.1.2 Groundwater

*      Minimum and maximum value of pH was detected during post monsoon season and the TDS value varied from 41.00 mg/l to 271.00 mg/l during the period of study.

*      A maximum value of 64.00mg/l of hardness was reported at Edamulakkal during pre monsoon season.

*      Sulfate value varied from 0.28 to 88.00 mg/l during the three seasons. 

*      The results of bacteriological analysis indicate that 100% of the samples were bacteriologically contaminated during pre-monsoon season.

*      Eleven types of groundwater were recognized in the study area. Majority of the groundwater samples belonged to Na-Ca-Cl-HCO3 type.

*      From piper study, chloride was identified as the major anion next to sulphate.

*      From the ternary diagram, it can be concluded that sodium and calcium is the major cation present in the groundwater samples of Ithikkara River basin.

*      From Wilcox Diagram, it was found that the groundwater of the study area can be considered suitable for irrigation.

1.1.1.3 Sediment analysis

*      The exchangeable calcium in sediment samples ranged from 7.54 mg/Kg – 12.07 mg/Kg. The organic carbon and organic matter were found to be very low in all the sediment samples.

*      The concentration of inorganic phosphorous is comparatively low in almost all samples (9 mg/kg to 82 mg/kg).

*      The percentage of total organic carbon varied from 0.76% to 1.38%.

*      The concentration of iron varied from 2375.0 – 4310.0 mg/kg. Minimum, value was reported at Ithikkara Bridge (IK1).

*      As per USEPA sediment quality guideline, the sediment sample collected from Ithikkara River basin is completely free from all other tested heavy metals

1.1.1.4  Biological analysisThe sequence of dominance species diversity of different groups of phytoplankton was follows: class Bacillariophyceae > Chlorophyceae > Cyanophyceae > Euglenophyceae.

*      Euglena sps favours the abundance of higher concentrations of total phosphorous and which was present at Ithikkara Bridge at all the three seasons.

*      Zooplankton diversity seemed to be less during the period of this study as all the stations showed low indices

 

                                          1.2    PALIKKAL RIVER BASIN

1.2.1 Salient findings of the study

 1.2.1.1 Surface water

*      pH during pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post monsoon varied from 6.42 to 6.76, 5.17 to 6.7 and 6.03 to 6.74 respectively.

*      EC of downstream station Vattakayal was found to be very high during post monsoon season due to the tidal impact and salinity intrusion.

*      There was a decreasing trend for alkalinity from monsoon to post monsoon season.

*      The maximum value for hardness, calcium and magnesium was obtained at Vatakkayal.

*      A value of 60.1 mg/l was observed for chloride in Thengamam region.

*      A maximum of 24.33mg/l was observed at Mundapally during monsoon and pre monsoon season.

*      Values of all heavy metals were found to be within the BIS limit. Iron, lead, nickel and cadmium were not detected during the period of study.  

     The results of the analysis showed that the pestisides level in the water samples were below detection limit.  

*      Maximum microbial contamination was reported in pre monsoon season.

*      According to CCME water quality index, 66% water sample had marginal water quality 17% good quality and 17% showed fair water quality.

*      The irrigation water quality parameters like SAR, SSP and KR indicate that majority of the samples from Palikkal River are suitable for irrigation purposes.

*      Classification of the river based on best designated use prescribed by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) showed that majority of the surface water samples from Palikkal can be used as drinking water sources only after conventional treatment and disinfection.

*      Cluster analysis showed that out of the identified two clusters, one of which is formed by points with low contamination levels and the other where the anthropogenic interference and saline intrusion is noticeable.

1.2.1.2 Groundwater

*      The pH values of samples ranged between 4.23 and 7.17. The EC and TDS values were high during post monsoon season at PKg 12.

*      The hardness value varied from 12.00 mg/l to 180.00mg/l during the period of study.

*      Highest value of chloride was reported during post monsoon at Karunagapally Municipality.

*      The results of bacteriological analysis indicate that 67% of the samples were bacteriologically contaminated during post-monsoon season.

*      Eleven types of groundwater are recognized in the study area. Majority of the groundwater samples belong to Na-Cl type.

*      From piper study, chloride was found to be the major anion next to sulphate.

*      From the ternary diagram, it can be concluded that sodium and calcium is the major cation present in the groundwater samples of Palikkal River basin.

*      From Wilcox Diagram, it was found that the groundwater of the study area can be considered suitable for irrigation

1.2.1.3 Sediment analysis

*      The pH ranged from 3.81 to 6.46. Electrical conductivity value ranged from 70.40 μS/cm to 490.00 μS/cm.

*       Higher EC value of 1514 μS/cm was observed for the sediment sample PK 3 (Mundapally).

*      Chloride in the samples varied from 23.10 mg/kg to 26.95 mg/kg. Sample collected from Thengamam showed the maximum value of 26.95 mg/kg.

*      Concentration of inorganic phosphorus was in the range 11.00-26 mg/kg.

*      The concentration of manganese was found to be high in the sample collected from Mundapally.

*      Concentration of iron was in the range 2375.00 – 2502.50 mg/kg.

*      As per USEPA sediment quality guideline, Mundapally (PK3) is moderately polluted with copper and Thengamam (PK4) is heavily polluted with copper.

1.2.1.4 Biological analysis

*      The sequence of dominance species diversity of different groups of phytoplankton was as follows: class Bacillariophyceae > Chlorophyceae > Cyanophyceae > Euglenophyceae.

*      Euglenophyceae genera reported were Euglena sps and Phacus sps. Euglena sps favours the abundance of higher concentrations of total phosphorous and which was present at Mundapally at monsoon season.

*      Maximum productivity was found in Mundapally, which shows the approaching eutrophic nature of water body.

*      According to Biological Water Quality Criteria (BWQC) Mundapally and Thengamam station showed only slight pollution throughout the seasons.

 

                                           1.3 UPPALA RIVER BASIN

1.3.1 Salient findings of the study

1.3.1.1 Surface water

*       During post monsoon and pre monsoon the pH of some of the River water sam[les indicated slightly acidic nature. All the other sampling sites showed pH range within the BIS limit in all the seasons.

*       In the present study the maximum and minimum concentration of EC was obtained was between 310.00 and269.00 mg/l (pre monsoon), 73.00 and 51.00 mg/l (monsoon) and 210.00 and 82.00 mg/l (post monsoon) respectively. The highest EC value was reported at Hosanagadi during pre-monsoon season and Anakkalu Bridge during post monsoon season.

*      There was a decreasing trend for alkalinity from monsoon to post monsoon season. Maximum value observed in pre monsoon (47.74 mg/l), monsoon (34.72 mg/l) and post monsoon (30.38 mg/l). All the values of alkalinity were found to be within the limit throughout the seasons.

*      The maximum concentration (108.69 mg/l) and minimum concentration of (3.92 mg/l) of chloride was reported during pre monsoon and monsoon seasons from Uppala station.

*      The BOD level in Uppala River fluctuated between 0.67 and 5.30 mg/l throughout the period of sampling. The BOD values indicated comparatively less pollution.

*      Values of all heavy metals were found to be within the BIS limit. Iron, lead, Nickel and Cadmium were not detected during the period of study.

        The results of the analysis showed that the pestisides level in the water samples were below detection level.

 

*      Maximum microbial contamination was reported in monsoon and pre-monsoon season.

*      According to CCME water quality index, 66% water samples had marginal water quality and 34% water samples showed poor quality.

*      The irrigation water quality parameters like SAR, SSP and KR indicate that majority of the samples from Uppala River are suitable for irrigation purposes.

*      Classification of the river based on best designated use prescribed by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) showed that majority of the surface water samples from Uppala can be used as drinking water sources only after conventional treatment and disinfection.

*      Cluster analysis showed that out of the identified three clusters, one of which is formed by points with low contamination levels and the other two where the anthropogenic interference and saline intrusion is noticeable.

1.3.1.2  Groundwater

*      The pH values of samples ranged from 4.59 and 7.80. Minimum value of pH was detected during monsoon season.

*       The alkalinity value ranged between 4.34 and 125.86 mg/l. A maximum value of 136.00mg/l hardness was reported at Meenja during pre monsoon season.

*      Chloride values were observed in the range of 7.80 to 43.16 mg/l.

*      Sulfate value varied from 0.52 to 31.20 mg/l during all the three seasons.

*      The results of bacteriological analysis indicate that 70% of the samples were bacteriologically contaminated during monsoon season. During pre-monsoon and post monsoon, it was 60% and 55% respectively

*      Fourteen types of groundwater are recognized in the study area. Majority of the groundwater samples belong to Na-Ca-Cl-HCO3 type.

*      From piper study we were able to identify chloride was identified as the major anion next to sulphate.

*      According to Durov diagram , it was confirmed that groundwater samples from Uppala River were dominated by the ions like Na+/ K+, Cl- , Ca2+ and HCO3-

*      From Wilcox Diagram, it was found that the groundwater of the study area, may not be  suitable  for irrigation purposes

1.3.1.3 Sediment analysis

*      The exchangeable calcium in sediment samples ranged from 8.00 mg/Kg to 18.00 mg/Kg.

*      The percentage of total organic carbon varied from 0.27% to 2.33%. Highest percentage of organic carbon was reported at Kuriya.

*      The highest concentration of chromium was obtained from the sediment samples collected from Kuriya.

*      Concentration of iron was in the range 140.01 to 189.26 mg/kg.

*      As per USEPA sediment quality guideline, the heavy metal concentration of the sediment samples was within the limit.

1.3.1.4 Biological analysis

*      The sequence of dominance species diversity of different groups of phytoplankton was as follows: class Bacillariophyceae > Chlorophyceae > Cyanophyceae > Euglenophyceae.

*      The zooplanktons collected from Uppala river basin mainly belonged to Protozoa, Ciliophora, Rotifera, Cladocera, Crustacea and Insecta.

*      Zooplankton diversity seemed to be less during the period of study as all the stations showed low indices.

 

1.4 AYIROOR RIVER BASIN

1.4.1  Salient findings of the study

1.4.1.1 Surface water

*      The pH of the water was found to be slightly acidic during the pre monsoon, during post monsoon season all the sites showed pH values within the BIS limit.

*      The values of EC in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons were 101.05-124.72, 127.75-155.74 and 107.96-199.92 micro siemens/cm respectively.

*      The TDS, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium and chloride values were found to be within the limit for surface water at all stations during all seasons.

*      The phosphate concentration ranged from0.01 to 0.05 mg/l in pre-monsoon, phosphate was not detected in monsoon.

*      The DO value ranged from 3.93-10.79, 6.40-7.52 and 5.26-8.33 mg/l in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon respectively.

*      The BOD values ranged from 0.59to 3.93, 0.66 to 2.38 and 0.19to 1.93 mg/l in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons respectively.

*      Values of all heavy metals and pesticide were found to be below detection limit.

*      The percentage of E.coli contamination was high in monsoon season compared with the other two seasons. In pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons the percentage contamination rate of E.coli was 20 %, 50 % and 20 % respectively.

*      According to CCME Water Quality Index, all the stations of Ayiroor River basin showed marginal water quality.

*      According to CPCB classification, in pre-monsoon and monsoon season all the samples came under the class C (Drinking water source after conventional treatment and disinfection). But 67% samples were categorized under class B (outdoor bathing) in post-monsoon season.

*      Cluster analysis showed that out of the identified four clusters, three of which is formed by points with low contamination levels and the other one where the anthropogenic interference and saline intrusion is noticeable.

1.4.1.2 Groundwater

*      The pH values in pre monsoon and post monsoon season were reported to be acidic in nature and the range was found to be 4.63-7.74.

*      Alkalinity, hardness, chloride and sulphate values were found to be within the BIS limit.

*      The results of bacteriological analysis indicate that, in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons the percentage contamination rate of E.coli was 58 %, 62 % and 30 % respectively.

*      Nine types of groundwater were identified in the study area. Majority of the groundwater samples belonged to Na-Ca-Cl-HCO3, Na-Cl-HCO3 and Na-Ca-Cl type.

*      From piper study, chloride was identified as the major anion next to sulphate.

*      According to Durov diagram , it was confirmed that groundwater samples from Mamom River were dominated by the ions like Na+/ K+, Cl- and HCO3-

1.4.1.3 Sediment analysis

*      The exchangeable calcium in sediment samples ranged from 9.05 mg/kg – 22.20 mg/kg.

*      Chloride values of Kundumankavu Bridge (AR 2) are 33.3 mg/kg and Ayiroor Bridge (AR4) is 22.2 mg/kg.

*      Organochlorine pesticides were not detected in any of the analyzed sediment samples.

1.4.1.4 Biological analysis

*      The sequence of dominance species diversity of different groups of phytoplankton was as follows: class Bacillariophyceae > Chlorophyceae > Cyanophyceae > Euglenophyceae.

*      The presence of Anabaena sps and Oscillatoria sps indicates the impact of sewage input at Shivapuri and Kulathupuzha.

*      Protozoan Difflugia is a pollution indicating genera observed at Ayiroor.

*      Palmer’s Algal Diversity Index was high in pre monsoon, indicating the presence of organic pollution at summer and low in monsoon, due to the higher dilution because of the runoff water.

 

1.5 MANJESWAR RIVER BASIN

1.5.1 Salient findings of the study

1.5.1.1 Surface water

*      In Manjeswar River basin the pH ranged from 6.49 to 7.09, 6.21 to 6.64 and 6.28 to 6.36 in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons respectively

*      The values of electrical conductivity and alkalinity were found to be higher in Posoat Bridge during pre monsoon season

*      The values of sodium ranged between 8808.00 and 9056.00; 5.93 and 46.28 and 6.17 and 66.60 mg/l during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons respectively.

*      Concentration of other tested parameters was found to be within the BIS limit.

*      High BOD (2.53 mg/l) was noticed at Posoat Bridge.

*      Values of all heavy metals were found to be within the BIS limit. Iron, lead, nickel and cadmium were not detected during the period of study.  

 

*      Maximum microbial contamination was reported in monsoon and pre-monsoon season.

*      According to CCME water quality index, 25% water sample had marginal water quality and 75% water samples showed poor quality.

*      The irrigation water quality parameters like SAR, SSP and KR indicate that majority of the samples from Manjeswar River are unsuitable for irrigation purposes.

*      Classification of the river based on best designated use prescribed by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) showed that majority of the surface water samples from Manjeswar can be used as drinking water sources only after conventional treatment and disinfection.

*      Cluster analysis showed that out of the identified three clusters, one of which is formed by points with low contamination levels and the other two where the anthropogenic interference and saline intrusion is noticeable.

1.5.1.2  Groundwater

*      The pH values ranged from 4.48 to 6.96 throughout the period of study.

*      The content of sodium and potassium varied from 4.69 to 294.1 mg/l and 0.34 to 15.10 mg/l respectively.

*      Sulfate value varied from 0.52 to 31.20 mg/l during the three seasons.

*      The results of bacteriological analysis indicate that 90% of the samples were bacteriologically contaminated during monsoon season

*      The results of bacteriological analysis indicate that 61% of the samples were bacteriologically contaminated during monsoon season.

*      Eight types of groundwater are recognized in the study area. Among which, 30% of the groundwater samples belong to Mg-Na-Cl-HCO3 type.

*      From the ternary diagram, it can be concluded that sodium and calcium is the major cation present in the groundwater samples of Manjeswar River basin.

*      From Wilcox Diagram, it was found that 50% of the groundwater of the study area can be considered suitable for irrigation.

1.5.1.3 Sediment analysis

*      The concentration of sodium in sediment sample was 0.42mg/kg.

*      The exchangeable calcium in sediment sample was 32mg/kg and magnesium 28 mg/kg.

*      The heavy metals like lead, nickel, zinc and cadmium were found to be below the detection limit in the sediment sample. Manganese was found in the range of 0.10 - 0.60 mg/Kg.

*      From the analysis organochlorine pesticides were not detected in any of the analyzed samples.

1.5.1.4 Biological analysis

*      Nitzschia sps an organic pollution tolerant species was reported in all the three seasons.

*      Cyanophyceans reported are: Anabaena sps and Anacystis sps and the presence of Anabaena sps indicates the impact of sewage input.

*      Reported arthropodes include crustaceans like Daphnia sps of order Cladocera and Cyclops sps of order Copepoda.

*      In the sediment sample collected from Pavoor station, the benthic macro invertebrates were found to be low.

1.6 MAMOM RIVER BASIN

1.6.1 Salient findings of the study

 1.6.1.1 Surface water

*      In Mamom River basin, the pH values ranged from 6.2 to 6.6, 66 to 7.6 and 65.7 to 7.1 in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons respectively

*      The values of EC and alkalinity were found to be comparatively high in Kadakam station during pre monsoon season

*      The values of sodium ranged between 11.30-104.70, 8.50-15.60 and 9.90-14.90 mg/l during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons respectively.

*      Most of the other parameters were found to be having values within the BIS limit.

*      High BOD (5.93mg/l) was noticed at Arthrakonam.

*      Values of all heavy metals were found to be within the BIS limit. Iron, lead, Nickel and Cadmium were not detected during the period of study.            

              The result  of the analysis showed that the pestisides level in the water samples were below detection 

 

*      Maximum microbial contamination was reported in monsoon season.

*      According to CCME water quality index, 78% water sample had marginal water quality and 22% water samples showed poor quality.

*      The irrigation water quality parameters like SAR, SSP and KR indicate that majority of the samples from Mamom River are suitable for irrigation purposes.

*      Classification of the river based on best designated use prescribed by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) showed that majority of the surface water samples from Mamom can be used as drinking water sources only after conventional treatment and disinfection.

*      Cluster analysis showed that out of the identified three clusters, one of which is formed by points with low contamination levels and the other two where the anthropogenic interference and saline intrusion is noticeable.

1.6.1.2 Groundwater

*      The pH value ranged from 4.55- 8.6, 4.18 to 6.84 during monsoon and 4.21 to 6.74 during post monsoon respectively.

*      Data from the survey showed that majority of the wells are dug wells  in which 67% use both pully and electric pumps as the mode of liftng.

*      The results of bacteriological analysis indicate that 61% of the samples were bacteriologically contaminated during monsoon season.

*      Ten types of groundwater are recognized in the study area. Majority of the groundwater samples belong to Na-Cl type.

*      From piper study chloride was identified as the major anion next to sulphate.

*      From the ternary diagram, it can be concluded that sodium and calcium is the major cation present in the groundwater samples of Mamom River basin.

*      From Wilcox Diagram, it was found that the groundwater of the study area can be considered suitable for irrigation.

1.6.1.3  Sediment analysis

*      The variations of alkalinity and total inorganic phosphorus were found to be in the range of 27.37-31.28 mg/Kg and 10.10-67.10 mg/Kg respectively.

*      Except calcium and inorganic phosphorous all the other tested parameters were found to be high at Vembayam.

*      Manganese was found in the range of 0.10 - 0.60 mg/Kg.

*      Lead was detected at only one site namely Vembayam

*      Concentration of iron was in the range 2375.00 – 2502.50 mg/kg.

1.6.1.4  Biological analysis

*      The sequence of dominance species diversity of different groups of phytoplankton was as follows: class Bacillariophyceae > Chlorophyceae > Cyanophyceae > Euglenophyceae.

*      In Arattukadavu pollution tolerant Tubifex sps were reported, indicating the low oxygen conditions at the bottom of the river as a result of high degree of organic degradation.

*      Upstream portion of the River was noted to have high extent of phytoplankton diversity than downstream.

*      Low diversity of benthic macro invertebrates was observed at all the stations during the study period.