JavaScript must be enabled in order for you to use the Site in standard view. However, it seems JavaScript is either disabled or not supported by your browser. To use standard view, enable JavaScript by changing your browser options.

| Last Updated:: 05/08/2017

Forest

 
 | Types of Forest    | Sacred Groves    | Mangroves   |

 

        Kerala forest fall in two biogeographic provinces, viz Western Ghats and the Western Coast, and are rich in biodiversity and vital for environmental protection and considered to be a repository of rare and endangered flora and fauna. The pressure on India's forests is very high because of high population. The rapid growth in the economy of the country in the last one decade has put additional demands on forest for infrastructure development. Forest plays an important role in the country's ecological stability and economic development. The national forest policy in India, since 1952 has set a goal of bringing one-third area of the country under forest cover. India aims at maintaining a minimum of 33% of country's geographical area under forest and tree cover.

Area under forest cover : Forest cover, as defined by Forest Survey of India, include all areas, more than one hectare in extent, with tree canopy density of more than 10 percent. Even though the land area of Kerala is only 1.2 percent of India , the forest cover is 2.30 percent of the national average. The National Forest Policy envisages achieving the goal of 33 percent of the land under forest and tree cover in the country.

The Remote Sensing Data showed major changes in the percentage of forest cover Kerala during the last 10 years (Table 1.1). During 1993-1999, the area under forest cover in the State was around 26.59 percent and the national average was around 19.4 percent. This stable status of the ecosystem showed a sudden increase during 2001-03, reaching an average of 40 percent for the State, whereas the national average showed a slight increase reaching 20.50 percent. This shows that the drastic increase, as interpreted from remote sensing data, was not real and probably, other tree covered areas like rubber plantations, which is on the increase in the State during the period, might have contributed to the increased coverage. Moreover, the area recorded under forests during the period by the State Forest Department also supports this conclusion. A graphical representation of the Biennial Changes in Forest Cover (%) in India and Kerala during 1993- 2003  is shown here. 

 

The geographical area recorded as forests by the state Forest Department shows that during 1993-2001, there is not much of a change or reduction in the extent of forests. However, during 2003, there is a slight increase as shown in Table 1.2 . which is a positive trend, i.e. an area of 47 km2 were added during the year and the coverage has almost attained 29 percent. However, this also includes about 75,000 ha of plantations of different species, the dominant ones being teak and eucalypts, which impoverishes the biodiversity and reduces the quality of the ecosystem. The classification of forest area in Kerala in the context of land utilization (Fig.1.2) shows that 64 percent of the area is under dense forests and 19 percent of the area is under plantations, while 17 percent of the area is given to other agencies (KFD, 2004). The reports of the Kerala Forests and Wildlife Department further shows that the actual forest area in the State during 2003-04 was 9,400 km2 which forms 24.19 percent of the total geographic area on the State. Still, with a population density of 819 persons per square kilometer (as per the State Census Report, 2001), the PER CAPITA availability of forest in Kerala is only 0.035 ha.

 

             In State of Forest Report (FSI, 2003), the forests of the State has been further classified as very dense (VDF) moderately dense (MDF) and open forests. In very dense forests (VDF), the crown density is more than 70 percent, in moderately dense forest (MDF) it is between 40 and 70 percent, and forests with crown density 10 to 40 percent were categorized as open forests (OF). As per the assessment in 2003 (FSI, 2003), in Kerala, dense forests (VDF and MDF together) accounted for 9,628 km2 and of 5949 km2 , respectively. At the same time, during 2001, the dense forests was 11,772 km2 and open forests 3788 km2 . In other words, there was better representation of dense forests in 2001 as compared to 2003 with a difference of 2144 km2 and a matching increase in area of open forests (OP) by 2161 km(Fig.1.3.a.Forest Cover (km2) by Density Classes in India and Kerala- Open forests, b.Forest Cover (km2 ) by Density Classes in India and Kerala - Dense forests). At the same time, this drastic degradation trend was not recorded during 1999 and 1997 and during those years the transformation was very minimum, i.e., almost 15 km (Table 1.3. Forest cover ( km2) by density classes in India and KeralaThe forest cover (km2) by Density Classes in India and Kerala is shown in (Table 1.4. Forest Cover ( km2) by Density Classes in India and Kerala ). The forest cover of the state based on interpretation of satellite data of December 2004 and February 2005 is 15595sq.km, which is 40.13% of the geographic area. Very dense forest 1024 sq.km, moderately dense forest 8636 sq.kn and open forest 5935 sq.km. As on Dec 2006 to March 2007, the forest cover in the state is 17324 sq.km, which is 44.58% of the total geographic area. 

 

The total forest cover of the country as per India State of Forest Report 2009 is 690899 sq.km which constitute 21.02% of the geographical area of the country. Of this 83510 sq.km (2.54%) is very dense forest, the moderately dense forest constitutes 319012 sq.km (9.71 %) and open forest constitutes 288377 sq.km (8.77%). The mangrove cover in the country is 4639 sq.km which is 0.14% of the total geographical area. Among the States/UTs, Madhya Pradesh with 77700 sq.km of forest cover has the maximum forest cover followed by Arunachal Pradesh (67353 sq.km).  The forest cover in the country according to State Forest Report 2005 was 677088 sq.km. while the 2009 report shows an increase of 13811 sq.km (2.04%). There is an increase of very dense forest cover to the tune of 2894 sq.km, the moderate dense forest cover and open forest cover were decreased by 13635 sq.km and 1495 sq.km respectively compared to 2005 assessment. 

     The forest cover of the state based on interpretation of satellite data of December 2004 and February 2005 is 15595 sq.km, which is 40.13% of the geographic area. Very dense forest  1024 sq.km, moderately dense forest 8636 sq.kn and open forest 5935 sq.km. As on Dec 2006 to March 2007, the forest cover in the state is 17324 sq.km, which is 44.58% of the total geographic area . The forest Area (km2)in Kerala during 2005 to 2013 is given here.

  

Forest Cover

      The pressure on India's forests is very high because of high population. The rapid growth in the economy of the country in the last one decade has put additional demands on forest for infrastructure development. Forest plays an important role in the country's ecological stability and economic development. The national forest policy in India, since 1952 has set a goal of bringing one-third area of the country under forest cover. India aims at maintaining a minimum of 33% of country's geographical area under forest and tree cover.

 

          The total forest cover of the country as per India State of Forest Report 2009 is 690899 sq.km which constitute 21.02% of the geographical area of the country. Of this 83510 sq.km (2.54%) is very dense forest, the moderately dense forest constitutes 319012 sq.km (9.71 %) and open forest constitutes 288377 sq.km (8.77%). The mangrove cover in the country is 4639 sq.km which is 0.14% of the total geographical area. Among the States/UTs, Madhya Pradesh with 77700 sq.km of forest cover has the maximum forest cover followed by Arunachal Pradesh (67353 sq.km). The forest cover in the country according to State Forest Report 2005 was 677088 sq.km. while the 2009 report shows an increase of 13811 sq.km (2.04%). There is an increase of very dense forest cover to the tune of 2894 sq.km, the moderate dense forest cover and open forest cover were decreased by 13635 sq.km and 1495 sq.km respectively compared to 2005 assessment.

 

           The forest cover in the state based on the interpretation of satellite data of February 2009 is 17,300 sq.km which is 44.52% of the of state’s geographical area. In terms of forest canopy density classes, the state has 1442 sq.km area under very dense forest, 9349 sq.km area under moderately dense forest and 6464 sq.km area under open forest. The density class wise distribution of the forest cover of the state is here.

 

             Proportion of different forest density classes is depicted in pie diagram in percentage terms. As per FSI, the main reason for forest cover increase was due to the change in the area of the trees outside forests. In Kerala, Idukki District has the maximum forest cover of 3930 sq.km and Alappuzha District has the lowest forest cover of 38 sq.km. In terms of percentage of forest cover with total geographical area, Wayanad has the highest forest cover of 83.3%, followed by Idukki and Pathanamthitta. Forest Cover map and district wise forest cover in different canopy density classes along with the changes covered to 2009 Assessment and scrub are given hereThe district wise Forest Cover- 2011 Assessment (area in Km2) and The Forest Cover Change Matrix (Area in km2) in 2011 assessment eveals there is a loss of forest cover to the extent of 24 sq.km as compared to previous assessment .

 

             The estimated forest area (provisional) in Kerala is 11309.4754 sq.km. This includes 9107.2066 sq.km of reserve forest, 364.4731 sq.km of proposed reserves and 1837.7957 sq.km of vested forests. An area of 244.37 sq.km has been excluded from the total area which includes KDH presumed area-97 sq.km., Chinnakanal unreserved and 47 sq.km., Pallilvasal unreserved-79 sq.km., and reserve land 21.37 sq.km.The forest area in Kerala (11309.4754 sq.km.) is 29.1% of the geographical area of the State which is higher than the national average of 21.02%.

 

Current Status

 

Based on the State of Forest Report 2015 prepared by FSI reveals the total forest forest cover of the country is 701,673 Sq. Km which constitutes 21.34% of the total geographic area of the country.  In terms of density classes, area covered by Very Dense forest (VDF) is 85,904 Sq. Km that with Moderately Dense Forest (MDF) is 315374 and the Open Forest (OF) is 300395 Sq. Km. The VDF class constitutes 2.61%, the MDF class constitutes 9.59% and the OF class constitutes 9.14% of  total forest cover of the total geographic area of the country. The forest cover of India is summarised in the table and Figure.

 

 

The forest Area (Km2) in Kerala during the periods 2003 to 2015 is given below 

 

Year

Forest Cover

2003-05

15595

2005-07

17284

2007-09

17324

2009-11

17300

2011-13

17922

2013-15

19239

 

According to the FSI report 2015, the forest cover in Kerala is shown below. The forest cover of Kerala has been increased to 19239sq km from 17922 sq.km in 2013 assessment. The increase in the forest cover is due to commercial plantations. The graphical representation of forest cover is shown below. 

 District wise forest cover of Kerala is shown in the table below.

 

 Forest Cover in different Forest Groups

            Forest type mapping using satellite data was carried out by Forest Survey of India with reference to Champion and Seth Classification. As per this assessment, the state has 13 forest types which belong to the seven forest type groups, viz, Tropical Wet Evergreen, Tropical Semi Evergreen, Tropical Moist Deciduous, Littoral and Swamp, Tropical Dry Deciduous, Tropical Thorn and Montane Wet Temperate Forests. Percentage wise distribution of forest cover in different forest type groups found in the state is given in the pie diagram,

 

Tree Cover:  Tree cover of the state over a period of 6 years i.e. 2004-10. The estimated tree cover in the state is 2755km2 which is 7.09% of the geographical area of the state. Five districts of the state namely Ernakulam, Idukki, Kollam, Palakkad, Wayanad have been inventoried. The forest and tree cover of the state is presented below:

Forest and Tree cover (Area in km2) 

 

 

According to the FSI report 2015, the total tree cover of Kerala is 2951 sq km which is 7.59% of total geographic area of the state. The state having maximum tree cover area is Maharashtra (9558 sq km) followed by Jammu and Kashmir (8354 sq km).

 

Natural Forest

The forest of Kerala is mainly classified into 5 major categories. The coverage of the plantations forestry is to the extent of 13.5 percent of the total area. There are considerable variations in forest type, the predominant three broad types being tropical moist deciduous forests from the plains to 750 MSL, tropical wet evergreen forests in the mountain ranges of ghats and tropical semi evergreen forests between these two types. These three types together cover most of the natural forest area.  Accoring to the FSI reports 2009, the coverage of the plantations forestry is to the extent of 29.97% of the total area. The major types of forests in Kerala during 2009 are given in the table below. The major types of forests in Kerala during 2011 is given here.

       
                   

Forest Produce

               Major forest produce include timber, reeds, bamboo, sandal wood and fire wood. The quantity of timber production in 2009-10 was 51665.6 cum (round log). The number of bamboos and reeds produced were 6.96 lakh and 148.55 lakh respectively. Bamboo production is decreased by 63.3% over the previous year. The sandal wood production was 51120.7 kg. Sandal wood production shows an increasing trend which accounts 65.9% increase over the previous year. There are spices which can be promoted under farm forestry with people participation. The forest policy of the state is guided by the 1988 National Forest Policy. In Kerala the strategies adopted for the development of forests envisages maintenance of environmental stability through preservation and reduction of degraded forests, conservation of biodiversity, increasing productivity of forest, increasing substantially the forest cover through massive afforestation and developing participatory forest management. A comprehensive state forest policy to address the specific problems and issues related to the conservation of forests and biodiversity of the state as well as the livelihood needs of the forest development communities has been formulated during 2007. The Forest Management Policy of the state encompasses technology improvement, biodiversity conservation and development of partnership with the forest dependent communities and fringe dwellers. Special thrust is also given for protecting species of plants and animals.

 

 

Timber and Non-Timber forest products of Kerala

               Forest Products collection is one of the major livelihoods of the local people. It consist of a variety of products, which are sources of food, fibre, manure, construction materials, cosmetics and cultural products. The users of NTFP range from local individuals to multinational companies. With the development of modern techniques, the number of products and uses based on NTFP has increased by many folds. Studies indicate NTFP collectors are amongst the lowest-income groups in India, often receiving a mere 5-20% of the value for their products (SPWD,1993). About 69% of the forest based employment is related to NTFP. The forests of Kerala are very rich in NTFP including edible products, medicinal plants, toiletries, tans, dyes, gums, resins, rattan, bamboo, grasses and animal products. Although 500 species of NTFP are available in the forests of Kerala, about 120 items are listed as commercially important by the Kerala Forest Department. But as per record more than 200 species are being collected.

 

The quantity of timber production in 2011-12 was 17283.23 cum (round log). The number of bamboos and reeds produced were 4.66 lakh and 93.91 lakh respectively. The sandal wood production was 52104.08 kg. The trend in production of forest produces from 2001-02 to 2011-12 (provisional) are shown here.  The forest policy of the state is guided by the 1988 National Forest Policy. In Kerala the strategies adopted for the development of forests envisages maintenance of environmental stability through preservation and reduction of degraded forests, conservation of bio-diversity, increasing productivity of forest, increasing substantially the forest cover through massive afforestation and developing participatory forest management. A comprehensive state forest policy to address the specific problems and issues related to the conservation of forests and biodiversity of the state as well as the livelihood needs of the forest development communities has been formulated during 2007. The Forest Management Policy of the state encompasses technology improvement, bio-diversity conservation and development of partnership with the forest dependent communities and fringe dwellers. Special thrust is also given for protecting species of plants and animals.

Status of Natural Forests VERSUS Plantations

 

The oldest teak plantation of India was raised in Nilambur of Kerala State during 1840s. About 20,000 ha area was brought under teak till 1960. Although regular plantation activity started during the second five year plan, greater momentum was achieved after 1980s. During 1980 to 1985, a total of 1,17,630 ha of area was under plantations of different species and this was increased to 3,10,830 ha in 1985-1990. Later on, the trend reversed and there was decline in plantation area to 85,300 ha in 1990-95 and to 1,03,750 ha in 1995-2000 (Table 1.5). Presently only the existing areas under plantations are managed and no more natural forest area is converted into plantation. The trend in reduction in establishment of plantation and current strategy of non-conversion of natural forests into plantation is a positive indication towards sustaining the status of the natural ecosystem which in turn also improves the indigenous biodiversity of the State.

Table 1.5. Forest Plantations Raised by Different Agencies since 1951

 Period

Area in ‘000 ha

1951-80

113.95

1980-85

117.63

1985-90

310.83

1990-95

85.30

1995-2000

103.75

 

Joint Forest Management (JFM):The participation of village communities living close to natural forests for the protection and development of forests has been given emphasis in the National Forest Policy, 1988. Accordingly, at National level, during 2001-2003, a total of 173319.60 km2 of forest area was brought under the scheme with the involvement 84,632 committees. Almost all the States in the country have implemented the programme. The notification to the State Governments to involve local communities in the management of forests was issued by the Government of India in June, 1990. It is envisaged that the communities, in lieu of their participation in protection and development of forest areas, will be entitled for sharing the usufructs in a manner specified by the concerned forest departments. This has led to the development of the Joint Forest Management (JFM) programme.

            The notification for Participatory Forest Management (PFM) was issued by Kerala Government in January, 1998 [GO (MS) 8/98/F&WLD dated 16.1.1998] and guidelines for implementation of PFM was issued in July, 2006 [GO (MS) No. 26/06/F&WLD dated 20.07.2006). There has been a progressive growth in the number of committees and the area brought under the scheme since 1999. Presently, more than 173 km2 of Kerala forests is covered under the scheme (Table 1.6) with the involvement of 598 committees from an area of 4 km2 and 21 committees in 1999.

Table 1.6. Progress of Participatory Forest Management in Kerala

Year

No. vof committees

Area under PFM ('000 ha)

Percentage of geographical area of the State under PFM

1999

21

4.00

0.1

2006

598

173.24

4.46

                         Accordingly, a paradigm shift is happening in the field of forest and wildlife management and the new strategy tries to reconcile the multiple demands on forests and to conserve the biodiversity on one hand and to meet the demands of the society on the other. The idea of involving local communities in forest conservation emerged out of this. It is a realization of the fact that governments enjoy political, legislative, judicial and financial powers to exert their will, rural communities have numeric superiority, a strong vested dependency and a strategic geographic position in relation to the forest resources. As a participatory forest management strategy for Protected Areas, ecodevelopment aims at conserving the biodiversity by addressing both the impact of local people on the Protected Areas and the impact of the Protected Areas on local people. Cardamom for Rainforest Conservation (CRC) and Participatory Forest Management (PFM) are processes initiated by the Forests and Wildlife Department of the State to protect the Cardamom Hill Reserves with the participation of Cardamom growers, Forest Department and related scientific organizations. The micro level organization associated with this is called the Unit Level Organization (ULO). In response to the changed paradigm of partnership, Eco Development Committees (EDCs) were established around fourteen Protected Areas of Kerala through village level planning of reciprocal commitments. The reciprocity resides in the mutual quid-pro-quo of specific measurable actions by local people to improve conservation and project investments that foster alternative resource use and livelihood. The intervention of these social institutions formed along the fringe areas of the forests of Kerala indicates that the novel approach adopted for building bridges between people and the forest management are paying dividends with regard to the long term conservation of forested areas and in the overall social capital built up in the communities.
                      Formation of these institutions has resulted in reducing the depletion of natural resources, to improve the socio-economic conditions of the marginalized communities and the consolidation and creation of social capital within individuals and society. This is now used as a platform for grass root level planning, asset creation, conflict resolution, networking other agencies and the formation of sub and satellite institutions. Currently, there are 598 units in PFM, including 304 fringe VSSs (Vana Samrakhana Samithis), 68 tribal VSSs, 33 ULOs and 193 EDCs. The number of VSSs also recorded overall increase during 1999-2000 to 2004-2005 (Table 1.7) and then declined in the subsequent years (Figure 1.4). Forest Development Agency (ULO/FDA) registered under Society Act has now become a division–level subsisiary of VSSs and EDCs, and funds to VSSs for developmental activities from various departments and the central government are chanelled through FDA. Now FDAs cover an area of 15,840 ha in Kerala.

Table 1.7 Year wise Constitution of VSSs by the Wildlife Wing of Kerala Forest Department since 1999

Period

No. of VSSs

1999-2000                          

13

2000-01

8

2001-02

37

2002-03

89

2004-05

179

2005-06

42

2006-07*

4

Total

372

* TILL SEPTEMBER 2006


Figure 1.4 Year wise Constitution of VSSs by the Wildlife Wing of Kerala Forest Department since 1999

 

Compensatory Afforestation Programme


                As per GO(MS) 11/94/F&WLD dated 17-03-1994, Compensatory Afforestation Programme was initiated at an estimated cost of Rs.113 crores, to be executed within a period of 10 years, starting from the financial year 1993-94. The target of the scheme was afforestation of 57,180 ha of forest land in lieu of 26,588 ha lost by way of encroachments prior to 01-01-1977 , which was a pre-condition for obtaining Government of India clearance for issuing PATTA to the encroached land. Though the programme of compensatory afforestation was scheduled to commence from 1993-94, it could take off only from the financial year 1994-95. As per the approval of the project, treatment and afforestation of 57,180 ha of degraded forests had to be completed by 1998-99 and the areas maintained for another 5 years, i.e., till 2002-03. But the treatment and afforestation of the entire area could not be completed as expected by 1998-99 and even at the end of 2001-02, due to various administrative and technical constraints. The progress in both physical and financial components of the programme, achieved till 2001-02, is given in Table 1.8. Out of the total targeted area of 57,180 ha under the scheme aportioned year-wise to be accomplished, hardly 20 percent could be achieved till 2002-03 at a cost of rupees 57.80 crores which is almost 53 percent of the total allotment. Therefore, both the physical and financial targets envisaged under the scheme could not be achieved which indirectly indicates the ineffectiveness of the programme as far as the State of Kerala is concerned. Whether it is due to lack of availability of proper resources, constraints in identifying targeted area, problems in the field implementation of the programme or administrative constraints is not known. The ecological suitability of the species tried in the programme, the survival rate of planted propagules, etc. are also matters of concern. Therefore even though the programme is a positive step taken by the Government of India to improve the status of the forest ecosystem and also to enrich the biodiversity of degraded areas, the success of it is not satisfactory, till date.
                 The National Afforestation Programme is now being implemented through a two-tier mechanism of Forest Development Agencies (FDA) at Forest Division level and Joined Forest Management Committees (JFMCs) at the village level. Currently, Kerala has 23 FDA project proposals from April 2000 onwards with a total estimated cost of Rs.47.44 crores covering an area of 15,840 ha (MoEF, 2006).

 

Table 1.8. Details of Compensatory Aforestation Activity in Kerala during 1993-94 to 2002-2003

 

 Extent of Protected Areas (PAs)

          Protected areas are established in the country for the IN SITU conservation of biodiversity at ecosystem level. The current number of protected areas in India includes 92 National Parks and about 500 Wildlife Sanctuaries. At present, there are 13 Wildlife Sanctuaries (including two Bird Sanctuaries) and five National Parks in Kerala (Table 1.10), covering a total area of 2,346.33 km2 (KFD, 2004). Parts of two Biosphere Reserves, namely Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve with an extent of 1455.40 km2 and the newly proposed Agasthiyavanam Biosphere Reserve with an area of 1701 km2 in Kerala are also protected areas within the State to preserve the forests and biodiversity. The increase in the number and area of National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in the State is given in Table 1.11. Including Biosphere Reserves, a total area of about 5,502.78 km2 is under the protected area network, which comes to about 14 percent of the geographic area of Kerala. From Table 1.10, it is clear that there are only 21.638 km2 of National Park area and 32 km2 of Wildlife Sanctuary area were added to the protected area network of the State since 1985, and that too only during 2006.

            Project Tiger programme was launched during 1973 to conserve the wild populations of the species in the country. The programme is spread over different States of which 777 km2 is in Kerala. It was launched in the State in Thekkady Wildlife Sanctuary during 1978 to preserve Tiger and its prey base and the habitat. The programme is successful and recent wildlife census shows that the number of tigers in the State has increased substantially. A similar project on elephant called Project Elephant was launched in 1991 aimed at conservation of elephant through protection and management of their habitat range. The elephant reserves identified in Kerala include Wayanad, Nilambur, Animudi and Periyar.

 

Table 1.10: Details of National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in Kerala as on 31. 03. 2004

Sl. No.

Name of National Parks/ WLSs

Area (km2 )

Year of formation

1

Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary

128.00

1958

2

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary

3.00

1983

3

Shenthuruni Wildlife Sanctuary

100.32

1984

4

Periyar Tiger Reserve

777.00

1950

5

Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary

90.44

1984

6

Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary

70.00

1976

7

Eravikulam National Park

97.00

1978

8

Thattekkad Bird Sanctuary

25.00

1983

9

Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary

85.00

1984

10

Peechi - Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary

125.00

1958

11

Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary

285.00

1973

12

Silent Valley National Park

89.52

1984

13

Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary

344.44

1973

14

Aralam Wildlifey Sanctuary

55.00

1984

15

Pampadam Shola National Park

1.32

2003

16

Mathikettan National Park

12.82

2003

17

Anamudi Shola National Park

7.50

2003

18

Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary

0.0274

2004

 

Total

2,346.38

 


Table 1.11. Increase in the Area of National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in Kerala during 1985-2006

 

► Bamboos of Western Ghats ► National Afforestion Programme (NAP) / ► Endangered Forest Species in Kerala / ► Tribal Settilements in Kerala

 

Source : (i) PFM Cell, Forests and Wildlife Department, Kerala State (KFD 2004,2006)

              (ii) FSI 2009,2010, 2011,2015

             (iii) Economic Review 2010-2015