JavaScript must be enabled in order for you to use the Site in standard view. However, it seems JavaScript is either disabled or not supported by your browser. To use standard view, enable JavaScript by changing your browser options.

| Last Updated:: 29/07/2016

Infrastructure

     Infrastructure forms the foundation on which social, economic and Industrial Development is built. Kerala is among the well performing states in India and holds an important position in the industrial front. The state holds significant industrial potential owing to good infrastructure facilities like power, transport system, airports, port and harbours and availability of rare materials. Central agencies like Railways, National Highways, Ports, Post and Telegraph, Telecommunication and Civil Aviation Authorities play a significant role in providing infrastructure facilities.Transport infrastructure of the State consists of 3.31 lakh Kms of road, 1257 Kms of Railways, 1687 Kms of Inland Waterways and 111 statute miles of Airways and 18 Ports.


Housing Status 

Based on the 60th NSS Socio Economic Survey report (1st January 2004 to 30thJune 2004) published by Department of Economics and Statistics analyses the following factors regarding housing status.

 

 

Percentage of Population

Kerala

India

Rural

Urban

Rural

Urban

78.8

21.2

74.7

25.3

Average Household size

4.78

4.16

5.07

4.43

Average number of adults per household

3.59

3.3

3.25

3.11

Average number of children per  household

1.19

0.86

1.82

1.32

 

District wise distribution of households by type of structure in both uraban and rural sectors are shown below:

The report on NSS Socio Economic Survey 64th round  (July 2007-June 2008) is based on the ‘State Sample’ data on ‘Household Consumer Expenditure Survey’, which is collected by the Department of Economics and Statistics. The report indicated that the average household size of Kerala was 4.4 and 4.1 persons for rural and urban areas respectively. Among the districts of Kerala, average household size varied from 3.7 (Thiruvananthapuram) to 5.7 (Malappuram) in rural sector and from 3.5 (Ernakulam, Idukki and Kottayam) to 5.1 (Kannur) in urban sector. In urban sector average household size for districts from Thiruvananthapuram to Thrissur (except Alappuzha) was below 4 persons. The only northern district having average urban household size less than 4 person was Wayanad. Malappuram was the only district with both rural and urban average household size greater than 5. Kollam and Pathanamthitta were the districts with average household size less than 4 in both the sectors. Out of 1000 households in rural sector, 898 lived in pucca structures, 64 in semi-pucca structures, and the remaining 38 in katcha structures. In urban sector 982 in every thousand households lived in pucca structures, 14 in semi-pucca structures and only 4 in katcha structures.  District and State Level Average Household Size by Sector is shown below:

The report on NSS Socio Economic Survey 65th round (July2008 – June 2009) published by Department of Economics and Statistics showed that 86% of rural and 93% of urban households in Kerala were lived in pucca structured dwellings. The corresponding figures at the national level are, 55% and 92% respectively. Thus in both the sectors of Kerala, the rate of households with pucca dwelling unit were above the national averages. This indicates the better living conditions experienced by households of Kerala. The distribution of households by type of structure is shown below. The graph reveals that at the national level, the urban households performed better, with 92% households lived in pucca dwellings, as compared with only 55% in rural. But in case of Kerala, the regional disparity in this regard was not so striking compared to the national level.

 

  ⇒ Housing status 2003 

 

Transport Infrastructure:

Transport infrastructure of the State consists of 2.43 lakh Km of road, 1148 Kms of Railways, 1687 Kms of Inland Waterways and 111 statute miles of Airways and 18 Ports.

           The most important challenge in the road sector involves building all weather roads connecting each and every village. Even though Kerala is comparatively better placed than most other States, as regards road length, the condition of many of these roads is very poor. Therefore, the main emphasis under road development in Kerala has been on improvement and upgradation of existing roads rather than construction of new roads. The investment need in the road sector is of high magnitude that is beyond the resources available with the Government. Therefore, there is an imperative need to motivate private and other non-governmental agencies/corporate sectors to participate in road construction and upgradation of selected highways.


Road Network in Kerala

          The roads in Kerala are maintained by National Highways / Public Works Department (R&B), Local Bodies, Department of Irrigation, KSEB, Department of Forests, Railways etc. Other agencies dealing with transport sector are National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC), Motor Vehicles Department, Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC), Kerala Transport Development Finance Corporation (KTDFC) and Roads & Bridges Development Corporation of Kerala (RBDCK).  [CLICK HEREfor more Details

 

Motor Vehicle Department

            Motor Vehicles Department is one of the major revenue earning departments of the Kerala State. Towards the administration and enforcement of Motor Vehicle Laws, collection of tax on Motor Vehicles under various categories, registration of vehicles, licensing of drivers and regulation of use of motor vehicles in the State in accordance with the powers conferred on the Department, it has made remarkable achievements.

            The number of motor vehicles having valid registration as on 31-3-2012 is 6865539. The District wise and category wise details of motor vehicles having valid registration as on 31-3-2012 is given in Appendix 5.7. The number of newly registered vehicles for the year 2011- 12 is 821295. The details are given in Appendix 5.8.

            In Kerala Kottayam has the lowest registered vehicles followed by Wayanad in the year 2011-12. The highest vehicle population registered in 2011-12 is in Kasargod district followed by Alappuzha and Idukki. District wise growth of motor vehicles in Kerala from 2007-08 to 2011-12 is given in Appendix 5.9. The growth in the vehicle population of the State for the last 4 years is given below.

                                            

 

           Accoridng to the reports 2013, the number of motor vehicles having valid registration as on 31.03.2014 is 85,47,966 as against 80,48,673 in the previous year. The newly registered vehicles comes to 9,22,432 during 2013-14. In the case of personal vehicles a faster growth rate has been recorded over the previous year. The percentage of category wise motor vehicles registered during 2013-14 is shown below.

                    The district wise details of vehicles newly registered, vehicles with valid registration and growth of vehicles in Kerala are given in Appendix 5.7 and Appendix 5.8. An analysis of growth of Motor vehicles and its impact on local development in the State during the last nine years reveals that vehicle population has increased from 31,22,082 in 2005 to 85,47,966 in 2014, (173.8%) while marginal increase has been achieved in the augmentation of road length. 

                        About 2527 vehicles are newly added to vehicle population every day. Of this 1688 are two wheelers. The details of category wise growth of motor vehicles in Kerala since 2008 are given in here. The highest vehicle population was recorded in the Ernakulam district with 14,67,028 vehicles (17.16 %) followed by Thiruvananthapuram with 10,66,318 (12.48%). Wayanad district has the lowest number of 1,17,466 (1.37 %) vehicles.

                                           Based on the 2015 reports, the number of motor vehicles having valid registrations as on 31.03.2015 is 94, 21,245 as against 85, and 47,966 in the previous year. The details are here. The number of newly registered vehicles is 8, 73,279 during 2014 -15 of which details are given here. In the case of personal vehicles, a faster growth rate has been recorded over the previous year. The district wise growth of vehicle numbers in Kerala is given here. The distribution of category wise motor vehicles registered during 2014-15 is shown below.

 

 

About 2393 vehicles are newly added to vehicle population every day. Of this 1715 are two wheelers. The highest vehicle population was recorded in Ernakulum district with 16, 17,972 vehicles (17.2%) followed by Thiruvananthapuram with 11, 75,647 (12.5%). Wayanad district has the lowest number of 1, 29,092 (1.37 %) vehicles. Category wise growth of motor vehicles in Kerala since 2010 to 2015 is given here..

 

Road Accidents

Even though several initiatives have been taken by the police to enforce road discipline and enforcement of rules by Motor Vehicles Department, road accidents are increasing. The increasing trend of traffic accidents is a matter of great concern. The accident rate of Kerala is increasing with 15 accidents per 1000 vehicles during 2012-13. Even bigger states like Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan reports far less number of accidents compared to Kerala. Motor Vehicle Road Accident 2012-14.

 

                            During 2014-15, Kerala registered 37253 accidents (102 per day). Accidents due to KSRTC buses were 1218 (3 per day) and private buses were 3168 (9 per day). The number of two wheelers has increased from 52.88 lakh in 2014 to 58.29 lakh in 2015, recording average annual growth rate of 10.27 percent. Similarly the number of traffic crashes involving two wheelers has grown from 16,394 (45 per day) in 2014 to 29,963 (82 per day) in 2015. Bike accidents account for nearly 53 percent of the total accidents reported in the State. Trend of motor vehicle accidents in Kerala is shown below:

           

Railways in Kerala:

           The State total railway route has a length of 1257 Km and covers 13 railway routes. The Railway Divisions at Thiruvananthapuram, Palakkad and Madurai jointly carry out Railway Operations in Kerala. Total route Km of 623.76 km of Trivandrum Division comprises of 494.76 in Kerala State and 129km in Tamilnadu State (Planning Commission of India-Twelfth Five year Plan 2013-18 Report). Thiruvananthapuram Division is the largest Coaching Division of Southern Railway with coach holding of 1572 (bare) coaches. The Division maintains 40 Express trains and 53 passenger trains.

 

                        Railways are essentially the cause for Industrial upsurge in the nation and it still remained the largest employment provider for the huge population of the country. The total length of track used by Indian Railways is about 111599 Km and the total route length is 64215 kms. The State total Railway route has a length of 1257 Km and covers 13 Railway routes. The Railway Divisions at Thiruvananthapuram, Palakkad and Madurai jointly carry out Railway Operations in Kerala. Ssix new Train services were started from Kerala during 2010-11. They are Kanniyakumari-Thiruvananthapuram-Dibrugarh Vivek Exp.(weekly); Manglore-Santragachi Superfast Vivek Exp.(weekly); Nilambur Road-Thiruvananthapuram Rajya Rani Exp.(daily); Kochuveli-Bhavanagar Exp.(weekly); Ernakulam –Bilaspur Exp.(weekly); Mangalore-Palakkad Superfast Intercity Exp.(daily). 

 

Suburban Rail Project

Government of Kerala has decided to establish Suburban train services in Thiruvananthapuram- Chengannur /Harippad sector in Phase-I by constituting a Special Purpose Vehicle to run air conditioned MEMU/EMU Rakes. M/s Mumbai Rail Vikas Corporation (MVRC) has finalized the Detailed Project Report. The total cost of the project is 3300.00 Crore. A Special Purpose Vehicle is formed between Government of Kerala and Indian Railways with 50:50 equity participation for taking up implementation of the Project.

 

Kochi Metro

 

Kochi Metro Rail Project (KMRP) is the flagship project of the Government of Kerala designed to address the transportation woes of Kochi City. The Project is implemented through the Kochi Metro Rail Ltd (KMRL) which is a Special Purpose Vehicle jointly owned by the Government of Kerala and Government of India with equity participation. The Union Government gave sanction for the project in July 2012 at a total cost of 5181.79 Crore. KMRL has signed an agreement with Government of India and Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd (DMRC) for executing the project and as per the tripartite agreement signed between Government of India, Government of Kerala and KMRL, the project is expected to be completed by June 2017.

 

 Air Transport: 

               Kerala has three airports at Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi and Kozhikode handling both international and domestic flights. Thiruvananthapuram and Kozhikode Air Ports are owned by Government of India and Kochi Air Port is owned by Cochin International Air Port Ltd (CIAL), a company set up by Government of Kerala with Public Private Participation. The details of the Flights operated by various agencies during 2011-12 at these three airports are given in Appendices 5.19 (A).

                   The passenger Traffic during March 2011 from  Cochin International  Airport Limited is 43,45,179 against to 39,46,103 in the last year registering growth of 10.11%. and it has a declared dividend of 215% to their shareholders during March- 2011. An Air Asia and Sri Lankan Airlines have commenced their flights operations to/from Cochin International Airport during 2011. The State’s prestigious greenfield airport project named ‘KANNUR INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT’ will be coming up close to Mattannur in Kannur district of Kerala State. It is only 20 kms away from Kannur city, and 2 kms from Mattannur on Kannur -Mattannur- Mysore road. The Airport will have a runway length of 3400 meters. The orientation of the runway is 07/25, which permits obstacle free approach. The airport is expected to have an annual traffic of more than 1 million international passengers and above 0.3 million domestic passengers as per 2009-2010 estimate.

 

          Air Transport plays a major role in the development of tourism both domestic and international. During 2012-13, 66122 flights (26524 domestic and 39598 international) were operated from all the three airports together. From the three airports, a total number of 83,74,104 passengers (24,64,712 domestic and 59,09,392 international ) were carried during 2012-13. Details of flights operated during 2012-13 by three Airports are shown in Appendix 5.19(Aa), (B) and (C).

 

            During 2013-14, 74533 flights ( 38024 domestic and 36509 international) were operated from all the three airports together. From the three airports, a total number of 1,07,67,493 passengers ( 3368096 domestic and 7399397 international ) were carried during 2013-14. Details of flights operated during 2013-14 by three Airports are shown in Appendix 5.19(Aa), (B) and (C).

 

 

              During 2014-15, 68119 flights (15028 domestic and 53091 international) were operated from the three airports together. A total number of 1, 29, 15,773 passengers (44, 92,737 domestic and 84, 23,036 international) were carried during 2014-15. Details of flights operated during 2014-15 by three Airports are shown in [Details of Flights operated by various agencies from Thiruvananthapuram International Airport], [Details of flights operated by various agencies from Kozhikode Airport], [Details of flights operated by various agencies from Cochin International Airport].

 

Inland Water Transport in Kerala:

                 Inland Water Transport, is a fuel efficient and environment friendly mode of transportation. India is richly endowed with navigable waterways, comprising rivers, canals, backwaters, creeks, etc. It is estimated that a total of 14500 Km of the waterways could be used for passenger and cargo movement. The State of Kerala, with numerous backwaters, is one of the State in India, where waterways are successfully used for commercial Inland Water Transport. The transportation is mainly done with country craft and passenger vessels. There are 41 navigable rivers in Kerala. The total length of the Inland Waterways in the State is 1687 Kms. The main constraints to the expansion of Inland Water transport in the State are lack of depth in the waterway caused by silting, lack of maintenance of navigation system and bank protection, accelerated growth of the water hyacinth, lack of modern inland craft terminals and cargo handling system.

 

                  The total length of the Inland Waterways in the State is 2395 Kms. The main arterial waterway in the state is West Coast Canal. The West Coast Canal connects the Neeleswaram in the north to Kovalam - Thiruvananthapuram in the south and is about 595 Km including 44 Km. uncut portion from Badakara to Azheekal .The Inland Canals play an important role in the economy of the state as they interconnect the rivers and backwaters .The Government agencies engaged in the development of Inland Water Transport in the State are Coastal Shipping and Inland Navigation Department (CSIND), State Water Transport Department (SWTD) and Kerala Shipping and Inland Navigation Corporation Ltd. (KSINC).


 

Kerala Port Sector: The Kerala state lies in the south west corner of the Indian peninsula. It has a coastal length of 585 km and the state has an average width of about 60 km with one major port at Cochin and 17 non major ports. The non major ports are under the administration of Government of Kerala. Government of Kerala intends to provide a boost to coastal shipping with the development of ports. Kerala state has got the Ghats in the east and the Arabian Sea on the west. The forest area in the east and coastal area in the west are environmentally very sensitive areas. The midland and coastal lowland are thickly populated. The physical and geographical features of Kerala and shortage of land causes man hardships for port development and industrialization in Kerala. The geographical location of Kerala is very close to international shipping route. There are seventeen minor ports in Kerala, out of which three are considered as intermediate ports based on berthing, cargo handling and storage facilities available in them. These have contributed much to the development of industry. trade, commerce and agriculture in the country.

 

            Presently cargo operations take place only in three ports – i.e. in Vizhinjam, Beypore and Azhikkal ports. Vizhinjam handles about 1000 tonnes. Beypore 50,000 tonnes and Azhikkal about 5000 tones annually. The remaining minor ports in Kerala are now defunct due to various reasons. Recognizing the need to develop the ports in a time bound manner, Government decided to encourage private sector participation in the sector. An amount of Rs 17081 lakhs and Rs 23081 lakhs are earmarked for this sector during 2010-11 and 2011-12 respectively.


Telecommunication

 

          Telecommunication is one of the prime support services needed for rapid growth and modernisation of the economy. The Telecommunication services in India have improved significantly since independence.
Kerala Telecom circles serves the whole of Kerala State, the Union Territory of Lakshadweep and part of Union Territory of Pondicherry (Mahe). The Circle has 11 major Secondary Switching Areas (SSAs) and one minor Secondary Switching Area (SSA) of Lakshadweep. Out of 11 major Secondary Switching Areas (SSAs), four at (Trivandrum, Ernakulam, Kottayam and Trichur) are headed by Principal General Managers and 7 are headed by General Managers. Lakshadweep minor SSA is headed by a Telecom District Manager.
          In Kerala, all the telephone exchanges were made automatic for the first time in the whole country, way back in 1990. In 1992 Kerala became the first state to provide Public Telephone facilities in all Panchayats Headquarters. Kerala is also the first state to provide Public Telephone in every village, by 1995. Kerala has a telephone density of 114.3 per thousand population as on 30.9.2005. The rural telephone density is 100 per 1000 population and urban telephone density is 153 per 1000 population.E


Source:

* Economic Review 2010-2015

* Motor Vehicle Department 

Department of Economics and Statistics, Kerala