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| Last Updated:: 06/10/2017

Water

 

         From the point of view of water resources Kerala is having both abundance and scarecity. The average annual rainfall of the state is 3000mm, the bulk of which (70%) is received during the South-West monsoon which sets in by June and extends upto September. The state also get rains from the North-East monsoon during October to December.However the spatial and temporal distribution pattern is mainly responsible for the frequent floods and droughts in Kerala. The average annual rainfall in the lowland of Kerala ranges from 900mm in the south to 3500mm in the north. In the midland, annual rainfall ranges from 1400mm in the south to about 6000mm in the north. In the highland, annual rainfall varies from 2500mm in the south to about 6000mm in the north. Kerala has got 41 west-flowing and 3 east-flowing were originating from the Western Ghats. The total annual yield of all these rivers together is 78.041 Million Cubic Meters (MCM) of which 70,323 MCM is in Kerala. The peculiarity of the rivers flowing across Kerala is short length of the river and the elevational difference between the high and the low land leading to quick flow of water collected from the river basin and quickly discharged into the Lakshsdweep sea, the state has not been able to utilise the river water sources to a major extent. The major portion of the runoff through the rivers takes place during the monsoon seasons. 67.29% of the surface water area of 3.61 lakh hectares is constituted by brackish water lakes, backwaters and estuaries.

 

        On a rough estimate, the source wise dependence by rural households for domestic water supply dependent on traditional ground water systems is 80%, 10-15% use piped water supply systems, and 5% use traditional-surface and other systems.

.
Fresh water availability in Kerala

              Per capita water availability, litres/day

Year

Rain

Surface water

Ground water

2001

9450

1022

590


Surface Water Resources:

 

              Kerala is rich with 44 rivers which together yield 70300Mm³of water annually. However the total utilizable yield is estimated to be 42000Mm³, only 60% of the annual yield. Kerala possess only four medium rivers and 40 minor rivers.

 

                In the all India perspective the rivers of kerala are not so significant than even the largest of them cannot find a place among the major Indian rivers. With respect to the national norm Kerala does not have a single major river and has only four medium rivers. The combined discharge of these four rivers is less than half of that of river Krishna. The remaining fourty rivers are only minor ones, the combined discharge of all of them together is only about one-third of that of Godavari. western ghats from where the river originate is devoid of snow and therefore these river systems do not have the benefit of water supplied during the summer seasons as in the north Indian rivers.


Ground water Resource of Kerala:

 

            Kerala is a tiny strip of land, located in the south-western tip of India between North latitudes 80 18’and 120 48’ and East longitudes 740 52’ and 770 22’, occupying only 1.2 percent of India's land area. Its geographical contours can be described as an elongated strip of land, cushioned between the Western Ghats on the east and the sandy shores of the Arabian Sea on the west. Its land area is 38,863 Sq. Km, stretching 580 Km in length and 30.130 Km in average breadth. In terms of area, though Kerala forms only 1.2% of the total area of India (3,287,263 Sq. Km), 3 percent of country's population inhabits the State. The State is subdivided into 14 districts and 152 blocks for administrative convenience.

 

              The occurrence and availability of ground water vary considerably from place to place within the State depending on the prevailing climatic, geomorphological and hydrogeological conditions. About 88 percent of the total geographical area of the State is underlain by crystalline rocks devoid of any primary porosity, with limited ground water prospects. In the alluvial formations having multiple aquifer systems, quality is sometimes a constraint in the optimal development of available resources. Increasing population, rapid urbanization and industrialization has resulted in increasing use of ground water resources over the last few decades in the State. Judicious and planned development of ground water and its scientific management have become necessary to ensure long-term sustainability of this precious natural resource in Kerala. The dynamic ground water resources of the State are being periodically assessed by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), jointly with the State Ground Water Department and other Central Government as well as State Government agencies, according to the methodology recommended by the Groundwater Estimation Committee constituted by Govt. of India from time to time.

 

                  Groundwater has been the mainstay for meeting the domestic needs of more than 80% of rural and 50% of urban population besides, fulfilling the irrigation needs of around 50% of irrigated agriculture. The ease and simplicity of its extraction has played an important role in its development. Recent the problems of decline in water table, contamination of groundwater, seawater intrusion etc. are being reported at many places.



Hydrogeology:

 

          Kerala State is a narrow stretch of land covering 38863 sq.km area bordering the Lakshadweep Sea on the western side and Tamil Nadu Karnataka Station the eastern side. The length of the State from north to south is 560km and the average width is 70km with a maximum of 125km. it lies between North latitudes 08 0 18' and 12 0 48' and east longitudes 74 0 52' and 77 0 22'.

 

The occurrence and movement of groundwater in various litho-units underlying the State are mainly controlled by the physiography, geological setting and structural features.

 

(i) Physiography:

              Physiographically the State is divided into three major units viz. the coastal plains, the midlands and the hill ranges. The coastal plains have an elevation of less than 7.6m whereas the elevation of the midland ranges from 7.6 to 76 m and that of the hill ranges is more than 76 m above mean sea level (amsl). Along the hill ranges two distinct plateau regions are seen, the important being the Wayanad plateau, which covers major part of Wayanad district, the general elevation of which is above 700 m amsl. The other plateau is the Munnar plateau in Idukki district, the elevation of which is about 1000 m amsl.

 

(ii) Rain Fall: 

                Kerala receives normal annual rainfall of 3060 mm, received mainly during the Southwest Monsoon period, extending from May to September, followed by the Northeast Monsoon in the months of November and December. The period between May and October accounts for about 87 percent of the annual rainfall. This period has been considered as monsoon season for computation of monsoon rainfall recharge. The amount of rainfall received shows a gradual decrease from North to South.

 

(iii) Geology:

                As much as 88% of the State is underlain by crystalline rocks of Archaean age comprising schistose formations, Charnockites, Khondalites and gneisses. All these formations are intruded by dykes of younger age. The sedimentary formations of Tertiary age occurring along the western parts of the State comprise four distinct beds viz. Alleppey, Vaikom, Quilon and Warkali. The crystalline and the Tertiary formations are lateritized along the midland area. Alluvial deposits of Recent origin are seen along the coastal plains.

Occurrence of Groundwater:

 

             Ground water occurs under phreatic, semi-confined and confined conditions in the above formations. The weathers crystallines, laterites and the alluvial formations from the major phreatic aquifers, whereas the deep fractures in the crystallines and the granular zones in the Tertiary sedimentary formations form the semi-confined and confined aquifers.Along the hill ranges, the crystalline rocks are covered by thin weathered zone. Thick zones of weathered crystallines are seen along midland region. The depth to water level in the weathered crystallines in the midland area ranges from 3 to 16mbgl. The midland area sustains medium capacity dug wells for irrigation. Mostly dug wells that can cater to domestic needs are feasible along topographic lows. Bore wells tapping deeper fractured aquifer are feasible along potential fractures in the midland and hill ranges. Potential fractures are seen down to 240m and the most productive zone is between 60 and 175m and the discharge of bore wells range between 36,000 and 1,25,000 lph.

 

          Of the four Tertiary beds, the two beds viz. the Vaikom and Warkali beds are potential aquifers. The Alleppey beds at the bottom contains bhrackish water as inferred from electrical logs, whereas, the Quilon beds are poor aquifers. The Vaikom aquifer is seen all along the coast between Quilon and Ponnani and the piezometric surface ranges from 1 to 18 m above msl. The aquifer is extensively developed between Quilon and Kayamkulam. The aquifer contains fresh water south of Karuvatta in Alleppey district and also north of chellanum in Ernakumal district. The Warkalai aquifer is seen south of Cochin . The piezometric head in the aquifer varies from 2.6m above msl to 10m above msl. The aquifer is largely developed in and around Alleppey and in Kuttanad area.

 

              Laterites are the most widely distributed lithological unit in the State and the thickness of this formation varies from a few meters to about 30m. The depth to water level in the formation ranges from less than a meter to 25 mbgl. Laterite forms potential aquifers along valleys and can sustain medium duty irrigation wells with the yields in the range of 0.5-6m3 per day.

 

             The alluvium forms potential aquifer along the coastal plains and ground water occurs under phreatic and semi-confined conditions in this aquifer. The thickness of this formation varies from few meters to above 100m and the depth to water level ranges from less than a meter to 6m bgl. Filter point wells are feasible wherever the saturated thickness exceeds 5m.               


Ground water potential of Kerala:

 

             The ground water potential of Kerala is very low as compared to that of many other states in the country. The estimated ground water balance is 5590Mm³. Dug wells are the major ground water extraction structure in Kerala. The dug wells have a maximum depth of about 10 to 15 meters and have a diameter of about 1 to 2 meters in coastal region and 2 to 6 meters in the midland and high land. The open well density in Kerala is perhaps the highest in the country-200 wells per sq.km in the coastal region, 150 wells per sq.km in the midland and 70 wells per sq.km in the high land. The ground water withdrawal is estimated as 980Mm³ and the State Ground Water Department calculate the effective recharge as 8134 sq Mm³.The ground water level receding drastically during the summer months and drying up of wells are common features of the ground water levels in many parts of Kerala. The ground water replenishment and hence the levels depends also on the geo-morphological, physical and chemical properties of the soil in general, The depth of water level in Kerala state varies from few cm bgl to 56 M bgl and most of the area fall under 0-20 M bgl. The depth of the water level in the weathered crystalline of midland areas in Kerala varies from 3- 16 M bgl. The midland area sustains medium capacity dugwells.

 

           Borewells tapping deeper fractured aquifer are feasible along potential features in the midland and hill ranges. Potential fractures are seen down to 240 M and the most productive zone is between 60 M and 175 M. The discharge of borewells range between 3,600 Iph and 1,25,000 Iph. In laterites, which is the most widely distributed lithological area in the state having a thickness from a 3 M to 30 M, the depth of water level ranges from less than a meter to 25 M.bgl. Lateries from potential aquifer along valleys and can sustain wells with yields in the range of 0.5 M³ to 6 M³ per day. Along the coastal plains the ground water occurs at depth ranging from less than a meter to 6 M.bgl. Filter point wells are feasible wherever the saturated availability indicate that ground water depths are farthest for laterite regions and shallowest for coastal alluvium during all times of the year. The availability of the groundwater level between the post and ore monsoon levels varies widely. The water level fluctuations in the post monsoon and ore monsoon vary between coastal alluvium, river alluvium and valley hills.


Groundwater Availiability of Kerala:

 

               Ground water fulfils the irrigation needs of around 50 percent of irrigated area. The total Annual ground water availability in Kerala State has been computed as 6.620 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM) and the net ground water availability in the entire state is 6.029 BCM. The rainfall recharge accounts for about 82 percent of the annual recharge. The annual ground water draft for all uses in the state is 2.809BCM. The net Ground water availability for future irrigation development in the state as in 2009 is of the order of 3.021 BCM. The overall stage of development of the State is 47 percent. The district wise stage of development is maximum in Kasaragod (71 percent) and minimum in Wayanad district (17 percent). Details are given here  The net annual ground water availability for the state of Kerala during 2009 has reduced to 3.22 per cent compared with the data during 2004. The annual ground water draft for all uses has reduced by 3.80 per cent during the period. The net ground water availability for future irrigation development in the state as a whole shows a decline of 1.74 per cent in 2009 compared to 2004.

 

                As per 2011 census, 65 percent of rural and 59 percent of urban households have wells. The ground water potential of Kerala is limited because 88 percent of the total geographical area of the State is underlain by crystalline rocks devoid of any porosity. There are 10 different principal aquifer systems in Kerala. Groundwater in Kerala has a potential of 34-601 metres below ground level (mbgl) and the yield varies between 0.1 – 38 lps (litres per second) depending on the area.

 

                 As per ground water resource data 2011, the total annual ground water availability and the net groundwater availability in the State is 6.69 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM) and 6.07 BCM respectively. The annual ground water draft for all uses in the State is 2.84 BCM out of which 1.31 BCM is for irrigation purpose. 3.07 BCM is the net ground water availability for future irrigation development in the State. The stage of ground water development of our State is 47%. Among the districts, Kasaragod and Wayanad ranks maximum and minimum with 71% and 18% respectively. Out of the 152 revenue blocks assessed in the State during 2011 for groundwater potential, 1 block (Chittur) is categorized as over exploited, 2 blocks (Kasaragod, Malampuzha) as critical, 23 blocks as semi- critical and 126 blocks as safe. The details of Ground Water Resources of Kerala during 2011 is given here.

 

             As per ground water resource data 2013 assessment, total Annual Ground Water Availability in Kerala State as on March 31, 2013 has been computed as 5.664 Billion Cubic Metre (BCM). Rainfall recharge accounts for about 82 percent of the annual recharge, with the remainder contributed by other sources. The contribution of districts to the total annual recharge of the State is shown below: Contribution of districts to the Total Annual Ground Water Recharge in Kerala

 


Contribution of districts to the Total Annual Ground Water Recharge in Kerala

 

 

As per the assessment 2013, the Net Ground Water Availability for the entire State is 5.664 billion cubic metre (BCM). The district-wise availability in the State ranges from 200.43MCM in Idukki district to 637.83MCM in Palakkad district. The Annual Ground Water Draft for all uses in the State is of the order of 2.635 BCM and ranges from 54.74 MCM in Wayanad district to 352.85 MCM in Palakkad district. Details of block- wise groundwater draft are given in Annexure IIID. The spatial distribution of ground water draft among districts in the State is shown below: 

 

 

Distribution of ground water draft in Kerala as in March 2013

 

The Net Ground Water Availability for future irrigation development in the State as in March 2013 is of the order of 2.94 BCM. The district-wise net ground water availability ranges from 98.65 MCM in Kasargod district to 325.33 MCM in Ernakulam district. District-wise status of Net Ground Water Availability and Annual Ground Water Draft for all uses is shown below: Status of 

 

 

Net Ground Water Availability & Ground Water Draft (As in March 2013)

 

 


      

 

 

 Categorization of Blocks

 

                 As per 2013reports, the assessment units have been categorized as “Over-exploited”, “Critical”, “Semi-critical” or “Safe” on the basis of Stage of Ground Water Development and the long-term decline of average ground water levels in the observations wells in the assessment unit, as per the criteria suggested in GEC-1997 methodology. Decline of ground water levels of 15 cm per year or more has been considered significant in the State while categorizing the blocks. However, in such units where the monsoon recharge has been computed by ad-hoc method on account of the water level data not being representative, categorization has been done primarily on the basis of stage of development and the existing ground situation. Out of 152 assessed units in the State, Chittur block of Palakkad district has been categorized as ‘Over-exploited’ and 2 blocks (Kasargod block of Kasargod district and Malampuzha block of Palakkad district) have been categorized as “Critical”. Out of the remaining blocks, 18blocks are “Semi-critical” and 131 blocks are “Safe”.

 

 Stages of Groundwater Development

 

 

 

Depth to Water Levels

 

                 The depth to water level was monitored from 1006 monitoring wells distributed throughout the State during the months of April, August, November and January. The water level measured during the month of April is taken as pre-monsoon water level and the data of November is taken as post-monsoon water level, on the basis of temporal distribution of long-term rainfall in the State. The depth to water level mostly depends on the hydrogeological conditions of the area as well as topography, rainfall pattern, etc. In coastal plains the depth to water level is generally restricted to 6 mbgl. In midland areas, where the undulating topography is seen, the depth to water level generally varies from near ground level to 25 mbgl. The variation is mostly due to topographical variations, thickness of lateritic overburden etc. In areas where laterites are underlain by sedimentary aquifers of Tertiary age, the water level goes very deep, even to the extent of 55 mbgl. In highlands the depth to water level is in the range of few cm to 10 mbgl depending on the topography and thickness of overburden (weathered zone).

 

Groundwater Management

 

                The National Water Policy of the Government of India states that the non conventional method for utilization of water such as through artificial recharge to ground water and traditional water conservation practices like rainwater harvesting need to be practiced to increase the utilizable water resources. The rainwater harvesting can be effected by in-situ-Harvesting and artificial recharge to ground water is the process of diverting the surface water into suitable geological formation. The common structures are percolation tanks, khadins, check dam/Anicut, sub-surface dams and injection wells. The ground water storage is the best method for water harvesting as it not only involves filtration of surface but is also safe from evaporation losses, natural catastrophes etc. Central Ground Water Board has implemented various artificial recharge schemes in Kerala like surface dykes, percolation tanks, and of top rainwater harvesting. Four sub-suface dams were constructed at Palghat district (Anaganadi, Bhabaji Nagar, Alanallur and Ottappalam), one at Ernakulam (Odakali), one at Kottayam (Neezhir) one at Quilon (Sandanadapuram) and two at Trivandrum district (Mampazhakara and Ayiolam). Central Ground Water Board has constructed two percolation tanks, one at Chirakulam of Kottayam district and another one at Kadapallam of Kasaragod district. Roof top rainwater harvesting schemes were implemented at two places viz. Ezhimala and Mayyilcolony of Kannur district. The artificial recharge structures have given satisfactory results and the groundwater condition in the area has improved considerably.

 

            Rainwater harvesting is the viable solution in the monsoon rich state of Kerala. The common structures feasible for Kerala are sub-surface dykes, nala bunds, check dams. The traditional water conservation structures like natural ponds, reservoirs should be desilted and cleaned. Participatory watershed development programmes should be implemented in the State. Mass awareness programme on ground water conservation should be arranged at Panchayat level in all districts.

 

Other Resources:

 

             Apart from rivers and wells sources like tanks, ponds, springs and surangams are also use in Kerala for providing water for drinking as well as irrigation. It is estimated that Kerala has approximately 995tanks and ponds having more than 15000 Mm³ summer storage. Natural springs occurring in the highland regions of Kerala state have the potential to be developed as good sources for drinking water supply and also for limited small scale irrigation, especially in remote and under developed areas. A total of 236 springs have been identified in the state. Kasaragode district in Northern Kerala has 510 special kind of water harvesting structure called Surangams which have >111pm discharge.


Major Irrigation Projects and Irrigation Status of Kerala 

 

Karapuzha Irrigation Project:

The project was approved by Planning Commission in 1978 with an estimated cost of `7.60 crore envisaging irrigation to Cultivable Command Area (CCA) of 5600 ha and an ultimate irrigation potential of 8721 ha. Now, as per 2010 schedule of rates, the revised estimate is `441.50 crore. The cumulative expenditure incurred up to March 2015 is `305.39 crore. The project has been partially commissioned on 20.6.2010. The up to date CCA created is 601 ha and the corresponding irrigation potential is 938 ha. Head works of the project, works of 8.805 Km right and 16.59 Km left bank canals are completed. 

 

Muvattupuzha Valley Irrigation Project:

The project envisages the utilisation of the tailrace water from Idukki Hydro electric project to irrigate a cultivable command area of 19237 ha in Ernakulam, Kottayam and Idukki districts. MVIP was started in 1974 at an estimated cost of `20.86 crore and the revised estimate amount is `967.00 crore (2012 SOR).Central Assistance had been received under AIBP for MVIP for the period from 2000-01 to 2008-09 for an amount of `154.964 crore. Total expenditure of this project up to March 2015 is `903.00 crore. Works of main canal have been completed. Out of the total length of 57.154 km of branch canals, 54.647 km have been completed (96%). For distributaries, out of the total length of 218.00 km, 190.754 km have been completed so far (88%).

 

Idamalayar Irrigation Project:

The cumulative expenditure as on March 2015 is ₹397.86 crore. 100% works of main canal, 86.20% of low level canal, 45.80% of link canal and 96.72% of RBMC works have been completed so far.

 

Banasurasagar Irrigation Project:

The project commenced in 1979 with an estimated cost of `8.00 crore to irrigate an area of 2800 ha (net) agriculture land for the second and third crops in two taluks of Wayanad district. The revised estimate of the project as per 2010 SOR is `185.5 crores. The work of main canal of length 2.73 Km is completed except from Ch. 1130 M to 1500 M. The work of both branch canals-Padinjarathara branch canal and Venniyode branch canal are in progress. There are 14 numbers of distributaries in this canal system and the land acquisition process of these distributaries is progressing. Total expenditure incurred for the project up to March 2015 is `48.20 crore.  

 

 

No

 Name of 
Project

 District

 Year of 
Start

 Year of 
Completion

 Expen-
diture

 Ayacut
Net

 in ha
Gross

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Neyyar

Thiruvananthapuram

1951

1976

461.00

15380

23470

2

Pampa

Pathanamthitta

1961

1994

5898.04

21135

48480

3

Periyar Valley

Ernakulam

1956

1994

8350.87

32800

78325

4

Chalakkudy

Thrissur

1949

1966

188.25

19696

27258

5

Vazhani

Thrissur

1951

1962

107.57

2113

4226

6

Cheerakuzhy

Thrissur

1957

1973

90.76

1619

1846

7

Malampuzha

Palakkad

1949

1966

580

21732

40208

8

Peechi

Thrissur

1947

1959

235

18623

23718

9

Mangalam

Palakkad

1953

1966

106

3639

6608

10

Wayalar

Palakkad

1956

1964

131.66

3844

6505

11

Gayathri

Palakkad

1956

1970

220

5466

10114

12

Pothundy

Palakkad

1958

1971

234.25

5466

10046

13

Chitturpuzha

Palakkad

1963

1994

2570.21

15700

29950

14

Kuttiady

Kozhikode

1962

1994

5072.69

14570

34710

15

Chimoni Mupli

Thrissur

1975

1996

5958

13000

26000

 

 

Ongoing Irrigation Projects

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Estimate


Expected
Net

Ayacut in ha.
Gross

1.
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 

9. 
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Vamanapuram
Kallada 
Thanneermukkam 
Meenachi 
Moovattupuzha 
Edamalayar 
Kanjirapuzha 
Kuriyarkutty-
Karappara 
Attappady valley 
Thrithala (BCR) 
Chaliyar 
Chamravattom(BCR) 
Banasurasagar 
Karapuzha 
Pazhassi 
Kakkadavu

Thiruvananthapuram 
Kollam 
Alappuzha 
Kottayam 
Ernakulam 
Ernakulam 
Palakkad

Palakkad 
Palakkad 
Palakkad 
Malappuram 
Malappuram 
Wayand 
Wayanad 
Kannur 
Kasargod

1981
1961
1975
1980
1974
1981
1961

1978
1975
1998
1981
1985
1979
1975
1962
1979

3640 
45780 
1650 
4956 
8925 
6940 
7500

6018 
5000 
-- 
37800 
1765 
1798 
4066 
7736 
9885

8057 
61630 
-- 
9950 
17737 
14060 
9713

11736 
4347 
1303 
73240 
3106 
2800 
4650 
11525 
13980

16436 
92800
--
14510
34737
43190
21835

23470
8378
3997 
108035
9659
4800
9300
23050
41760

 Source: IDRB, Thiruvananthapuram


             The overall performance of the major and medium irrigation sector during the initial years was not encouraging.  The cumulative area brought under irrigation through major and medium irrigation projects is 29346 hectares (gross).  The details of the progress of implementation of ongoing projects as on March 2010 are given below.
 

 

    

 

Irrigation Status: As per the assessment of the Directorate of Economics and Statistics the net irrigated area in the state as on March 2010, is 3.86 lakh ha. and the gross area irrigated is 4.54 lakh ha. The net area irrigated has declined from 3.99 lakh ha during 2008-09 to 3.86 lakh ha in 2009-10. Only 16.34 per cent of the net cropped area is irrigated. The percentage of net area irrigated to net area has declined and percentage of gross irrigated area to gross cropped area records a slight increase during the year compared to the last year. During 2009-10 the net irrigated area registered a decline of 10.75 per cent and gross irrigated area by 0.64 percent compared to the previous year. During 2009-10, among the crops, paddy tops among the major crop supported by irrigation. It accounted for about 37 per cent followed by coconut (33%), banana (8%), arecanut (8%) and vegetables (4%).

 

               

 

                 The source-wise area irrigated as on March 2013 is given here . As per the assessment of the Directorate of Economics and Statistics the net irrigated area in the state as on March 2013, is 3.96 lakh ha. and the gross area irrigated is 4.58 lakh ha. There is a decrease of 3.2 percent in the net irrigated area of the state in compared to the previous year of 2011-12. Gross irrigated area also decreased 6.7 percent during the period. Gross irrigated area to Gross Cropped Area in the period is 17.67 percent. During 2012-13, among the crops, coconut tops among the major crop supported by irrigation. It accounted for about 36 percent followed by paddy 32 percent, banana 10 percent, arecanut 8 percent and vegetable 4 percent. Details are given here. There has been a good progress in irrigated area under vegetable cultivation during the year and also an increase in the area under irrigation for banana cultivation compared to the previous year.

 

                  The source wise irrigation status as on March 2014 and 2015 are given here[PDF1, PDF2]. As per the assessment of the Directorate of Economics and Statistics, the net irrigated area in the State as on March 2015, is 4.14 lakh ha. and the gross area irrigated is 4.69 lakh ha. The percentage of increase is not significant compared to the previous year. During 2014-15, the percentage of Gross Irrigated Area to Gross Cropped Area was 17.80. The crop which benefitted the most during the period is coconut. It accounted for about 35.18 percent followed by paddy (32 percent), banana (10.19 percent), arecanut (7.2 percent) and vegetable (5.21 per cent). The details are given here.  There has been an increase in irrigated area for vegetable cultivation during 2014-15 compared to the previous year.

     

Ramsar sites in Kerala  |  National Wetland Atlas [ Wetlands of International Importance under Ramsar Convention] |  National Wetland Atlas of Kerala Ramsar Sites Information Service   

 


Source:Economic Review 2009-16