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| Last Updated:: 26/07/2023

Energy

Energy Development

  Energy is an essential input for economic development and improving the quality of life. Development of conventional forms of energy for meeting the growing needs of society at a reasonable cost is the responsibility of the Government Development and promotion of non-conventional /alternative/ new and renewable sources of energy such as solar, wind and bio energy etc are getting sustained attention. Nuclear energy development being geared up to contribute significantly to the overall energy availability in the country.

 

                  Universal access to affordable power in a sustainable manner is the guiding principle for the Power sector. Sources of power in India range from conventional sources to viable non-conventional sources. Almost 80 per cent of India’s energy requirements are met by coal, oil, natural gas and solid biomass (Source: International Energy Agency). India’s per capita emission is quite low but in absolute terms, it is the 3rd largest greenhouse gas emitter (country-wise) in the world. Per Capita Electricity Consumption of India in general and Kerala in particular is much below the world average.

 

               India is ranked 63rd in the World Energy Trilemma Index (WETI) 2022, which annually measures the energy system performance of 127 countries based on Energy Security, Energy Equity, Environmental Sustainability and Country Context Dimension. India is one of the countries that occupies the centre stage in the world’s quest for clean energy transition and mitigation of climate change, and ranked 8th as a high-performing country in the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI 2023).

 

Power Sector - Indian Scenario 

 

           The national grid has an installed capacity of 4,03,759 MW as on June 30, 2022. In India, electricity from thermal energy is the dominant source of power. It constitutes nearly 58 per cent of the total installed capacity in the country as on June 30, 2022. Contribution of electricity generation from different sources to the national grid is given in Table 11.2.1. Of late, renewable sources have emerged as the second largest electricity source in the country relegating hydroelectric power to the third position.

 

Installed Capacity (MW) in India 2021-22

Fuel

Installed Capacity (MW)

As on March 31, 2022

%

As on June 30, 2022

%

Thermal

2,36,108.72

59.10

2,36,065

58.46

Hydro

46,722.52

11.69

46,850

11.60

Nuclear

6,780.00

1.69

6,780

1.67

Renewable Sources

1,09,885.38

27.50

1,14,064

28.25

Total

3,99,496.62

 

4,03,759.00

 

Source: Central Electricity Authority (CEA)

 

                     In the sector-wise breakup of total energy generation as given in below as on June 30, 2022, the contribution of the State sector is 1,04,969 MW (25.99 per cent), Central sector 99,005 MW (24.52 per cent) and private sector 1,99,785 MW (49.48 per cent).

 

Installed Capacity (MW) in India 2021-22, Sector-wise

Sector

Installed Capacity (MW)

As on March 31, 2022

%

As on June 30, 2022

%

Central Sector

99,004.93

24.78

99,005

24.52

State Sector

1,04,854.98

26.24

1,04,969

25.99

Private Sector

1,95,636.71

48.97

1,99,785

49.48

Total     

3,99,496.62

 

4,03,759

 

Source: Central Electricity Authority (CEA)

 

Power Sector in Kerala

 

              Kerala is the second best performing State as per NITI Aayog’s State Energy and Climate Index (SECI) published in 2022, which measures the State’s efforts for improving the energy sector. In Kerala, electricity consumption is predominantly in domestic and commercial sector where as in other states, a major portion of the energy consumption is in industry and agriculture. State is meeting approximately 30 per cent of its present requirement from renewable energy sources. Taukte cyclone during the month of May 2021 severely affected the southern and central districts causing damages to electrical installations, disrupting power in most of the places and about 38 lakh consumers were affected throughout the State. Table below shows the details growth of the power system in the State for the last five years.

 

Growth of Power System at a Glance during 2017-22

Particulars

Unit

2017-18

2018-19

2019-20

2020-21

2021-22

Installed Capacity

MW

2975.56

3000.35

3063.15

3029.65

3145.82

Maximum Demand

MW

3884

4242

4316

4284

4380.04

Generation per annum

MU

5474.47

7593.12

5722.81

7057.90

9742.29

Annual Sales

MU

21159.19

21750.25

23058.91

22540.30

23983.42

Per capita consumption

kWh

613

626

657

619

676

Export per annum

MU

166.89

1030.20

323.84

633.39

2244.73

Import per annum

MU

18677.46

17982.15

20827.12

18708.40

19156.36

Consumers

Nos (lakh)

122.76

125.52

128.26

131.43

134.22

Street Lights

Nos.

1417639

1422764

1447820

1476776

2301556

E-vehicle Charging stations

Nos.

   

8

56

219

Total revenue per annum

₹ in crore

12260.00

14002.94

14718.59

15169.39

15664.92

Source: KSEBL

 

Power Availability:

 

                The quantum of power available in the State is met from Central Stations, private generators, Power Exchanges and also from internal sources including stations owned by KSEBL, Independent Power Producers (IPPs), Captive power plants (CPPs), and prosumer. Details are given below:

 

Energy Sources and Quantum Procured in 2021-22

 

Particulars

 

Energy (MU)

Gross generation KSEBL (excluding auxiliary consumption)

A

9763.05

Power purchase from CGS at Kerala periphery

B

9505.47

Power purchase through long term/medium term/short term contracts/swap at Kerala periphery

C

8628.08

Total Power purchase from IPPs/CPPs inside the State

D

753.74

Total power purchase at Kerala periphery [ Row 2+3+4]

E = B + C + D

18887.67

Energy injected by Private IPPs at generated end for sale outside the State through open access

F

49.28

Energy availed through open access at Kerala Periphery

G

268.69

Auxiliary consumption

H

20.77

EXPORT-Energy sales by KSEBL, SWAP Return by KSEBL and Energy injected by Private IPP’s at KSEB periphery for sale outside the State through open access

I

2244.73

Total energy input to Kerala periphery for meeting the consumption of the State including energy wheeled through open access

J = A + E + F + G – H – I

26703.19

Source: KSEBL

 

Power Demand:  

 

Peak demand of the State in 2021-22 was 4,380.04 MW (on March 17, 2022), indicating 2.24 per cent increase from 4,284 MW in 2020-21. Morning peak demand was 3500 MW, Average demand was 3,337.44 MW and average day demand was 2,885.40 MW for 2021-22. The below figure shows the energy requirement and maximum demand for energy during the last five years. 

 

Requirement and Maximum Demand for Energy during the Last Five Years

 

Source: KSEBL

 

 

Generation

 

                  Total installed capacity of power in the State as on March 2022 is 3,145.82 MW, of which, hydel power contributed the major share of 2,136.91 MW (67.92 per cent); while 529.54 MW was contributed by thermal projects (16.83 per cent), 409.09 MW (13 per cent) from solar and 70.28 MW from wind (2.23 per cent).

 

(Appendix 11.2.3) Energy Source in Kerala from 2017-2022 (MW)

Source of Energy

2017-18

2018-19

2019-20

2020-21

2021-22

Hydel: KSEB

2055.76

2058.76

2058.76

2058.76

2066.20

Thermal: KSEB

159.96

159.96

159.96

159.96

159.96

Wind: KSEB

2.03

2.03

2.03

2.03

2.03

Solar: KSEB

14.85

16.85

17.47

17.51

30.28

Solar other than

KSEBL

(solar connected

to Grid other

than KSEBL)*

97.48

117.27

169.43

180.85

276.81

Solar :IPP

 

 

 

102.00

102.00

NTPC(Thermal

IPP)

359.58

359.58

359.58

359.58

359.58

Thermal: CPP

157.00

157.00

167.00

10.00

10.00

Hydel: CPP

33.00

33.00

33.00

33.00

33.00

Hydel: IPP

37.66

37.66

37.66

37.71

37.71

Wind: IPP

58.25

58.25

58.25

58.25

58.25

Wind:CPP

 

 

10.00

10.00

10.00

Total

2975.570

3000.36

3073.14

3029.65

3145.82

Source : KSEBL, * Solar other than KSEBL value includes solar prosumers (on grid consumers)

 

(Appendix 11.2.4) Total Installed Capacity in Kerala from 2017-2022

Sector