Envis Centre, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Govt. of India

Printed Date: Sunday, December 10, 2023



         From the point of view of water resources Kerala is having both abundance and scarecity. The average annual rainfall of the state is 3000mm, the bulk of which (70%) is received during the South-West monsoon which sets in by June and extends upto September. The state also get rains from the North-East monsoon during October to December.However the spatial and temporal distribution pattern is mainly responsible for the frequent floods and droughts in Kerala. The average annual rainfall in the lowland of Kerala ranges from 900mm in the south to 3500mm in the north. In the midland, annual rainfall ranges from 1400mm in the south to about 6000mm in the north. In the highland, annual rainfall varies from 2500mm in the south to about 6000mm in the north. Kerala has got 41 west-flowing and 3 east-flowing were originating from the Western Ghats. The total annual yield of all these rivers together is 78.041 Million Cubic Meters (MCM) of which 70,323 MCM is in Kerala. The peculiarity of the rivers flowing across Kerala is short length of the river and the elevational difference between the high and the low land leading to quick flow of water collected from the river basin and quickly discharged into the Lakshsdweep sea, the state has not been able to utilise the river water sources to a major extent. The major portion of the runoff through the rivers takes place during the monsoon seasons. 67.29% of the surface water area of 3.61 lakh hectares is constituted by brackish water lakes, backwaters and estuaries.


        On a rough estimate, the source wise dependence by rural households for domestic water supply dependent on traditional ground water systems is 80%, 10-15% use piped water supply systems, and 5% use traditional-surface and other systems.

  Fresh water availability in Kerala is given here


A graphical distribution of the locations of water on Earth



Surface Water Resources:


              Kerala is rich with 44 rivers which together yield 70300Mm³of water annually. However the total utilizable yield is estimated to be 42000Mm³, only 60% of the annual yield. Kerala possess only four medium rivers and 40 minor rivers.


                In the all India perspective the rivers of kerala are not so significant than even the largest of them cannot find a place among the major Indian rivers. With respect to the national norm Kerala does not have a single major river and has only four medium rivers. The combined discharge of these four rivers is less than half of that of river Krishna. The remaining fourty rivers are only minor ones, the combined discharge of all of them together is only about one-third of that of Godavari. western ghats from where the river originate is devoid of snow and therefore these river systems do not have the benefit of water supplied during the summer seasons as in the north Indian rivers.

Ground water Resource of Kerala:


            Kerala is a tiny strip of land, located in the south-western tip of India between North latitudes 80 18’and 120 48’ and East longitudes 740 52’ and 770 22’, occupying only 1.2 percent of India's land area. Its geographical contours can be described as an elongated strip of land, cushioned between the Western Ghats on the east and the sandy shores of the Arabian Sea on the west. Its land area is 38,863 Sq. Km, stretching 580 Km in length and 30.130 Km in average breadth. In terms of area, though Kerala forms only 1.2% of the total area of India (3,287,263 Sq. Km), 3 percent of country's population inhabits the State. The State is subdivided into 14 districts and 152 blocks for administrative convenience.


            The occurrence and availability of ground water vary considerably from place to place within the State depending on the prevailing climatic, geomorphological and hydrogeological conditions. About 88 percent of the total geographical area of the State is underlain by crystalline rocks devoid of any primary porosity, with limited ground water prospects. In the alluvial formations having multiple aquifer systems, quality is sometimes a constraint in the optimal development of available resources. Increasing population, rapid urbanization and industrialization has resulted in increasing use of ground water resources over the last few decades in the State. Judicious and planned development of ground water and its scientific management have become necessary to ensure long-term sustainability of this precious natural resource in Kerala. The dynamic ground water resources of the State are being periodically assessed by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), jointly with the State Ground Water Department and other Central Government as well as State Government agencies, according to the methodology recommended by the Groundwater Estimation Committee constituted by Govt. of India from time to time.


             Groundwater has been the mainstay for meeting the domestic needs of more than 80% of rural and 50% of urban population besides, fulfilling the irrigation needs of around 50% of irrigated agriculture. The ease and simplicity of its extraction has played an important role in its development. Recent the problems of decline in water table, contamination of groundwater, seawater intrusion etc. are being reported at many places.




          Kerala State is a narrow stretch of land covering 38863 sq.km area bordering the Lakshadweep Sea on the western side and Tamil Nadu Karnataka Station the eastern side. The length of the State from north to south is 560km and the average width is 70km with a maximum of 125km. it lies between North latitudes 08 0 18' and 12 0 48' and east longitudes 740 52' and 770 22'. The occurrence and movement of groundwater in various litho-units underlying the State are mainly controlled by the physiography, geological setting and structural features.  


(i) Physiography:


              The State can be sub-divided into three major units based on their Physiographic characteristics viz. the coastal plains/Lowlands, the midlands and the hill ranges/Highlands. The coastal plains have an elevation of less than 7.6m above mean sea level (a.m.s.l). The elevation of the midland region ranges from 7.6 to 76 m amsl and that of the hill ranges is more than 76 m above mean sea level. Along the hill ranges two distinct plateau regions are seen, the important being the Wayanad plateau, covering major part of Wayanad district, with elevations above 700 m.amsl and the Munnar plateau, located along the northern part of Idukki district with a general elevation of about 1000 m.amsl are the prominent plateaus in the hilly region of the state.


(ii) Rain Fall: 


                Kerala receives normal annual rainfall of 3505 mm, received mainly during the Southwest Monsoon period, extending from May to October, followed by the Northeast Monsoon in the months of November and December. The period between May and October accounts for about 87 percent of the annual rainfall. This period has been considered as monsoon season for computation of monsoon rainfall recharge. The amount of rainfall received shows a gradual decrease from North to South. The spatial distribution of normal annual rainfall in the State is shown below:


(iii) Geology:


                As much as 88% of the State is underlain by crystalline rocks of Archaean age comprising schistose formations, Charnockites, Khondalites and gneisses. All these formations are intruded by dykes of younger age. The sedimentary formations of the Tertiary age occurring along the western parts of the State comprise four distinct beds viz. Alleppey, Vaikom, Quilon and Warkali. The crystalline and the Tertiary formations are lateralized along the midland area. Alluvial deposits of recent origin are seen along the coastal plains. The general stratigraphic sequence is given below:


Stratigraphic Succession of Geological Formations in Kerala






Sand, clay, riverine alluvium etc



Derived from crystalline and sedimentaries


Sandstone, clays with lignite


Limestone, marl and clay



Sandstone with pebbles, clay and lignite


Carbonaceous clay and fine sand



Dolerite, Gabbro, Granites, Quartzo - feldspathic Veins.


Wayanad group

Granitic gneiss, Schists etc.


Charnockites and associated rocks


Khondalites suite of rocks and its associates

Ground water potential of Kerala:


             The ground water potential of Kerala is very low as compared to that of many other states in the country. The estimated ground water balance is 5590Mm³. Dug wells are the major ground water extraction structure in Kerala. The dug wells have a maximum depth of about 10 to 15 meters and have a diameter of about 1 to 2 meters in coastal region and 2 to 6 meters in the midland and high land. The open well density in Kerala is perhaps the highest in the country-200 wells per sq.km in the coastal region, 150 wells per sq.km in the midland and 70 wells per sq.km in the high land. The ground water withdrawal is estimated as 980Mm³ and the State Ground Water Department calculate the effective recharge as 8134 sq Mm³.The ground water level receding drastically during the summer months and drying up of wells are common features of the ground water levels in many parts of Kerala. The ground water replenishment and hence the levels depends also on the geo-morphological, physical and chemical properties of the soil in general, The depth of water level in Kerala state varies from few cm bgl to 56 M bgl and most of the area fall under 0-20 M bgl. The depth of the water level in the weathered crystalline of midland areas in Kerala varies from 3- 16 M bgl. The midland area sustains medium capacity dugwells.


            Borewells tapping deeper fractured aquifer are feasible along potential features in the midland and hill ranges. Potential fractures are seen down to 240 M and the most productive zone is between 60 M and 175 M. The discharge of borewells range between 3,600 Iph and 1,25,000 Iph. In laterites, which is the most widely distributed lithological area in the state having a thickness from a 3 M to 30 M, the depth of water level ranges from less than a meter to 25 M.bgl. Lateries from potential aquifer along valleys and can sustain wells with yields in the range of 0.5 M³ to 6 M³ per day. Along the coastal plains the ground water occurs at depth ranging from less than a meter to 6 M.bgl. Filter point wells are feasible wherever the saturated availability indicate that ground water depths are farthest for laterite regions and shallowest for coastal alluvium during all times of the year. The availability of the groundwater level between the post and ore monsoon levels varies widely. The water level fluctuations in the post monsoon and ore monsoon vary between coastal alluvium, river alluvium and valley hills.

Groundwater Availability of Kerala:


Total Annual Ground Water Recharge: The Total Annual Ground Water Availability in Kerala State as on March 31, 2022, has been computed as 5.73 Billion Cubic Metre (BCM). Rainfall recharge accounts for about 82.37 percent of the annual recharge, and the rest contributed from other sources. The contribution of districts to the total annual recharge of the State is shown below:


Contribution of districts to the Total Ground Water Recharge in Kerala


Annual Extractable Ground Water Recharge:  The annual extractable ground water recharge was calculated as per the norms recommended in the 2015 methodology by deducting un-accounted losses and natural discharge (Environmental Flows) during the non-monsoon season from the Total Annual Recharge available. Annual Extractable Ground Water Recharge for the entire State is 5.19 billion cubic metre (BCM). The district-wise availability in the State ranges from 189.06 MCM in Idukki district to 589.82 MCM in Palakkad district. The spatial distribution of Annual Extractable Ground Water Recharge in Kerala as in March 2022 in depth units (m) is shown below:


Ground Water Extraction: Ground water Extraction in Kerala is mainly for domestic uses and for irrigation. The Groundwater Extraction of Domestic use is estimated to be 1.55 BCM and the Groundwater Extraction of Irrigation use is estimated to be 1.17 BCM. The Extraction for Industrial uses is very less when compared to Domestic and Irrigation use and has been estimated as 0.01BCM. The Annual Ground Water Extraction for all uses in the State is of the order of 2.729 BCM and ranges from 55.46 MCM in Wayanad district to 339.35 MCM in Palakkad district. The spatial distribution of ground water Extraction among districts in the State is shown below:



Annual Ground water Allocation for Domestic Use as on 2025: The Annual Extractable Ground Water Resources are to be apportioned between domestic, industrial and irrigation uses. Among these, as per the National Water Policy, requirement for domestic water supply is to be accorded priority. The estimate of allocation for domestic water requirement has been computed to be 2.195 BCM as per GEC-2015 norms.


Net Ground Water Availability for Future use: The water available for future use is obtained by deducting the allocation for domestic use and current extraction for Irrigation and Industrial uses from the Annual Extractable Ground Water Recharge. The resulting ground water potential is termed as the net annual ground water availability for future use and is computed to be 2.176 BCM. The district-wise net ground water availability ranges from 60.42 MCM in Kasaragod district to 243.84 MCM in Alappuzha district. District-wise status of Annual Extractable Ground Water Recharge and Ground Water Extraction for all uses is shown below:




Stage of Ground Water Extraction and its Validation: The Stage of Ground Water Extraction of assessment units computed as the ratio of Existing Gross Ground Water Extraction for all uses and the Annual Extractable Ground Water Recharge expressed in percentage. The stage of Ground water extraction for the Kerala State is 52.56 %. The Stage of Ground Water Extraction is the highest in Kasaragod district (72.16%) and the lowest in Wayanad district (24.95%). Details on the total annual ground water recharge, net annual ground water availability and stages of ground water development in the State is given below:




Categorization of Blocks


               The Assessment units have been categorized as “Over-exploited”, “Critical”, “Semicritical” and “Safe” based on Stage of Ground Water Extraction and the long-term decline of average ground water levels in the observation wells in the assessment unit, as per the criteria suggested in GEC-2015 methodology. After that the analysis has to be validated. If in a safe block (SOE≤70%) decadal water level trends are showing falling patterns, then the calculation is unacceptable and re-calculation needs to be made. Again, reassessment is necessary if in an OE block (SOE >100%) long term water level trends in observation wells are showing rising pattern.


                Out of 152 assessed units in the State, 3 blocks (Chittur & Malampuzha blocks of Palakkad district and Kasaragod block of Kasaragod district) have been categorized as “Critical”; 27 blocks are “Semi-critical” and 122 blocks are in “Safe” category. The Stage of Ground Water Extraction and the block-wise long-term (2010- 2021) water level trends of the observation wells being monitored by Central Ground Water Board and the State Ground Water Department for pre and post-monsoon were considered for categorization of the blocks. The spatial distribution of different categories of assessment units is given in Figure below:


Categorization of Blocks in Kerala (As in March 2022)


(Source: Ground Water Resources of Kerala (March 2022), Ground Water Department & Central Ground Water Board)


Groundwater Management


                The National Water Policy of the Government of India states that the non conventional method for utilization of water such as through artificial recharge to ground water and traditional water conservation practices like rainwater harvesting need to be practiced to increase the utilizable water resources. The rainwater harvesting can be effected by in-situ-Harvesting and artificial recharge to ground water is the process of diverting the surface water into suitable geological formation. The common structures are percolation tanks, khadins, check dam/Anicut, sub-surface dams and injection wells. The ground water storage is the best method for water harvesting as it not only involves filtration of surface but is also safe from evaporation losses, natural catastrophes etc. Central Ground Water Board has implemented various artificial recharge schemes in Kerala like surface dykes, percolation tanks, and of top rainwater harvesting. Four sub-suface dams were constructed at Palghat district (Anaganadi, Bhabaji Nagar, Alanallur and Ottappalam), one at Ernakulam (Odakali), one at Kottayam (Neezhir) one at Quilon (Sandanadapuram) and two at Trivandrum district (Mampazhakara and Ayiolam). Central Ground Water Board has constructed two percolation tanks, one at Chirakulam of Kottayam district and another one at Kadapallam of Kasaragod district. Roof top rainwater harvesting schemes were implemented at two places viz. Ezhimala and Mayyilcolony of Kannur district. The artificial recharge structures have given satisfactory results and the groundwater condition in the area has improved considerably.


            Rainwater harvesting is the viable solution in the monsoon rich state of Kerala. The common structures feasible for Kerala are sub-surface dykes, nala bunds, check dams. The traditional water conservation structures like natural ponds, reservoirs should be desilted and cleaned. Participatory watershed development programmes should be implemented in the State. Mass awareness programme on ground water conservation should be arranged at Panchayat level in all districts.


Other Resources:


             Apart from rivers and wells sources like tanks, ponds, springs and surangams are also use in Kerala for providing water for drinking as well as irrigation. It is estimated that Kerala has approximately 995tanks and ponds having more than 15000 Mm³ summer storage. Natural springs occurring in the highland regions of Kerala state have the potential to be developed as good sources for drinking water supply and also for limited small scale irrigation, especially in remote and under developed areas. A total of 236 springs have been identified in the state. Kasaragode district in Northern Kerala has 510 special kind of water harvesting structure called Surangams which have >111pm discharge.

Hydrology Information Systems:

                 The State has 41 west-flowing and three east-flowing rivers, and has an average annual rainfall of about 3,000mm. However, the extent to which it can retain, store, and use these for agricultural purposes is still inadequate. In order to have a realistic assessment of water resources in the State, the Investigation Design and Research Board of Irrigation department is in the process of modernising the existing hydrology information system with a Real-Time Data Acquisition System. The core activity of the hydrology wing of the Irrigation department is the collection, validation, and collation of hydro-meteorological data from various gauging stations, established across Kerala river basins. The National Hydrology Project, funded by World Bank, also aims at improving the quality and accessibility of water resources information and to strengthen the capacity of water resources management institutions in the State. The objective is to establish an effective hydrologic database and hydrological information system for effective water resources planning and management.


                   The consecutive floods of 2018 and 2019 necessitated an early flood warning system for the State. Flood Forecasting and Early Warning System (FFEWS) integrated with reservoir operations for Periyar and Chalakudy basins were initiated during the 13th Five-Year Plan period under the National Hydrology Project. FFEWS acts as an end-to-end system for issuing timely warning against disaster. The accuracy of the forecast depends on the real time hydro-met data received, and the quality of topographical features.


Overview of the 13th Five-Year Plan


                The 13th Five-Year Plan focussed on expanding agricultural productivity by expanding area irrigated, and increasing the irrigation potential and efficiency. There was special focus on canal modernisation, drought management, and the completion and commissioning of ongoing major and medium irrigation projects. Though the share of minor irrigation outlay has increased during the Plan period, major and medium irrigation continued to play a dominant role in the sector outlay. The total budgeted outlay for the sector during the 13th Plan period was ₹2,682.15 crore. Major and Medium irrigation had the largest share (51.79 per cent), followed by minor irrigation (33 per cent), flood control measures (14.46 per cent), and command area development (0.74 per cent).


Irrigation Status: 


                 As per the assessment of Directorate of Economics and Statistics, the net irrigated area in the State in 2021-22 was 4.03 lakh ha, whereas the gross irrigated area was 5.61 lakh ha. There has been an increase in the net and gross irrigated area in 2021-22, compared to the previous year. The percentage of gross irrigated area to gross cropped area increased from 20.30 per cent in 2020-21 to 22.25 per cent in 21-22, which is significant. The gross irrigated area shows a consistent increase from 5.17 lakh ha in 2019-20 to 5.21 lakh ha in 2020-21, and further to 5.61 lakh ha in 2021-22. Source-wise, the net area irrigated through wells leads with 1.66 lakh ha, followed by other sources (1.16 lakh ha), and small streams (thodu) (0.72 lakh ha) in 2021-22. Details on the source-wise and District-wise net area irrigated are given below:


Net Area Irrigated (Source wise) (in Ha.)

Sl. No











Government canals





Private canals















Other sources










Gross irrigated area





Net area irrigated to net area sown (%)





Gross irrigated area to gross cropped area (%)





Irrigated area under paddy to total irrigated area (%)




(Source: Directorate of Economics & Statistics)


District - Wise Net Area Irrigated (Source Wise) 2021 - 22 are given here.


              Crop-wise, paddy and coconut are the major crops most benefitted though irrigation. However, the extent of gross irrigated area under paddy and coconut shows a decline in 2021-22 compared to the previous year. The gross area irrigated under paddy declined to 1.54 lakh ha in 2021-22 from 1.59 lakh ha in 2020-21 and that of coconut declined to 1.52 lakh ha from 1.58 lakh ha during the corresponding period. Percentage of irrigated area under paddy to total irrigated area has fallen to 27.44, as against 30.61 per cent in 2020-21. A sharp fall is seen in the gross area irrigated of banana. In 2020-21, the gross area irrigated under banana was 0.52 lakh ha, which reduced to 0.37 lakh ha in 2021-22. A similar declining trend is seen in the irrigated area of vegetables, marking a fall from 0.28 lakh ha in 2020-21 to 0.25 lakh ha in 2021-22. Details on gross area irrigated and crops benefitted are given here.


Gross Area Irrigated (Crop-wise) (in ha.)

Sl. No





















Areca nut




















Betel leaves


















Source: Directorate of Economics & Statistics



Highlights of the Department during the 13th Five-Year Plan Period


Thrust on Major and Medium Irrigation Projects


                    The Government decided to examine the works of four major and medium irrigation projects-Muvattupuzha, Idamalayar, Karapuzha, and Banasura Sagar. These projects have been under implementation over several decades. The Kerala State Planning Board constituted a five-member Technical Committee in the first year of the 13th Plan period to evaluate these irrigation projects. After understanding the hurdles in implementation, the Committee defined certain targets and timelines for the completion/commissioning of these projects, and they were funded accordingly during the Plan period.


                   The commissioning of Muvattupuzha valley irrigation project in July 2020 was a notable achievement during the period. With a cumulative expenditure of ₹1,083.64 crore, as on date of commissioning, the project benefitted ayacuts of 33,670 (ha) (gross) and 17,179 ha (net). The hindrance in the MC road crossing in the Low-Level Canal of Idamalayar Irrigation project was cleared by adopting the push-through mechanism, the first of its kind in the Department. Thus, the water distribution through this stretch of Low-Level Canal helped meet the agricultural and drinking water requirements of Nedumbassery Panchayat and Angamaly Municipality. For the construction work in the railway crossing portion of the Low-Level Canal, ₹3.06 crore was deposited to the railway authorities.


                 In the Karapuzha project, the breach rectification works carried out in the Left Bank Main Canal (LBMC) and Right Bank Main Canal (RBMC), would enable water distribution through the entire main canals for the total length of 25.54km from 2022 onwards, which would benefit an ayacut of 636.48 ha. Thus, main canals could be made operational for the first time since the inception of the project. The Karapuzha mega tourism project in the dam premises, inaugurated in 2017, also contributed to the development of the region. The rectification works in the main canal of Banasurasagar project have begun for clearing the major bottleneck from Ch.1130m to 1,500m. Land acquisition processes for Venniyode and Kappumkunnu distributories were also initiated during the period.


Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP): The Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP) aims at improving the safety and operational performance of sixteen dams/barrages/regulators of Irrigation department with the financial assistance from World Bank. Phase I of the project, initiated in 2012, got extended up to March 2021. Major achievements of DRIP Phase I are- (1) Rehabilitation works of 13 dams, including civil, mechanical and electrical works (2) Renovation works of Moolathara regulator (3) Hydro mechanical renovation works of 14 dams (4) Strengthening works of eight dams – Chimoni, Kallada, Kanjirapuzha, Kuttiyadi, Malmapuzha, Malankara, Pazhassi and Pothundy (5) Approval of Emergency Action Plan of 14 dams by CWC (6) Web-based software package to support the effective collection and management of dam safety data. Kerala Water Resources Department is now part of DRIP Phase-II (2021-2027) for improving the safety and operational performance of 15 dams/barrages/regulator of Irrigation department.


Improved focus on Minor Irrigation Greater efficiency in irrigation could be achieved through proper designing of irrigation systems for reducing water conveyance loss. Minor irrigation schemes are intended for irrigating smaller command areas by way of diversion of water from rivers and canals and by effecting proper drainage by constructing sidewalls, sluices and crossbars. The minor irrigation census provides a comprehensive data base on the irrigation potential created and utilised, water distribution practices, and sources used for energising the schemes. Efforts are needed for the efficient management of water resources in a sustainable manner. Micro-irrigation can play a vital role in improving the water use efficiency. As on March 31, 2021, the area covered under micro irrigation in Kerala (Drip and Sprinkler) was 33,264 ha.

(Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Farmer’s Welfare Department; Indiastat).


                    Adoption of water-saving technologies like sprinkler and drip irrigation systems have proven to be efficient not just in water conservation, but also in increasing the yield. As part of promoting the same, the Irrigation department has initiated the implementation of community micro-irrigation projects across the State with the assistance of other stakeholder Departments. Based on the joint inspection by the Departments of Agriculture and Irrigation, twenty-one project sites were identified. Among these, six projects identified in the districts of Pathanamthitta, Idukki, Wayanad and Thrissur are taken up in the first phase, and are in design and implementation stages.


Minor Irrigation Schemes During the 13th Five-Year Plan Period: One of the major objectives during the 13th Five-Year Plan period was the shift of focus from major and medium irrigation to minor irrigation. Physical achievements of minor irrigation (surface water) during the period 2017-18  to 2021-22 are given below:


Physical achievement of Minor Irrigation, 2017-18 to 2021-22 (in ha)


Physical achievement (net) in ha














                  The ayacut benefitted through Minor Irrigation shows a fluctuating trend during the 13th Five-Year Plan period. After 2017-18, the ayacut has declined drastically in the succeeding two years, but the situation had improved slightly in 2021-22. The floods of 2018 and 2019 had severely damaged irrigation structures, river banks, and canals. The shift in the cropping pattern from paddy to cash crops and reduction in ayacut due to hike in the construction cost because of change in the schedule of rates also affected additional ayacut generation. Kasaragod District forms the drainage basins of many rivers, and the District receives substantial rainfall. The lack of water conservation schemes has affected the agricultural productivity of the District adversely. To utilize the available water effectively for irrigation, the Kasaragod package envisages construction of VCBs in the District. As per the status report, an amount of ₹42.62 crore have been spent from 2015-16 to 2020-21 for the construction of 77 VCBs.


Desiltation of Rivers and Reservoirs: Government of Kerala had issued orders in 2021, for the rejuvenation of rivers and for the removal of sediment deposits occurred due to the floods of 2018 and 2019. The desiltation works are being done in co-ordination with the District Administration. As of September 2022, out of the 44 rivers, desiltation of 30 rivers are completed, thereby removing 98,35,939 cubic metres of sediments.


                   Based on the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for desiltation of dams and reservoirs in the State, issued by the Government of Kerala in 2017, from the Mangalam reservoir in Palakkad, 1,55,941 cubic metre of silt was removed. Desiltation works in Chullliyar, Walayar and Meenkara dams are in different stages of implementation. Similarly, based on the SOP for the desiltation of large ponds (more than one hectare), works were initiated in three Eris (large water bodies) viz, Kunnumpidari Eri, Kambalathara Eri and Venkalakkayam Eri in Palakkad District. The Environmental Management Plan for the desiltation of these three Eris was prepared by Kerala Engineering Research Institute, Peechi. Of the six projects identified for removing the silt, sand and debris accumulated near regulators and check dams, three works ie, Chenganaamkunnu regulator, Manjummel regulator and Cheruthuruthi check dam were completed.


Reservoir Storage Status: The storage position of reservoirs in pre and post monsoon stages is given here. The storage-level at the end of the monsoon is marked at 1,312.93 million cubic metre and 1,127.41 million cubic metre in 2021 and 2022 respectively. Post monsoon, the storage-level has increased by 713.55 million cubic metre in 2021, whereas the increase is only 495.94 million cubic metre in 2022. The dam storage status (pre and post monsoon) for the period 2020 to 2022.



  Source: Groundwater Department, Govt of Kerala, Economic Review 2021-22